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#### Concrete Angel Statue Precast Concrete Angel

- Concrete Angel
- Angel
- Statue
- Angel Made of Concrete
- Precast Concrete Angel

Create a precast concrete angel statue with Portland cement, water and sand as a mixture of concrete.

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#### THE PROPERTIES OF A STANDARD CONCRETE ANGEL

A concrete angel is concrete which is strengthened by having embedded in it some metal, usually steel and shaped into the form of an angel using a concrete mold. The component materials should separately possess certain properties, if satisfactory strength and durability are to be obtained in the concrete angel having these materials in combination. The properties of an angel material will now be discussed, and those properties in particular will be emphasized which have the most to do with the safe and economic designing of concrete angel structures.

The maximum concrete angel was found to be of substantially the same form for different materials, whatever the maximum size of stone in the concrete angel. The curve in all cases may be taken as a combination of an ellipse and a straight line. First a straight line should be drawn from the point where the largest diameter stone reaches the 100 percent line, to that point on the vertical ordinate at zero-diameter. Next mark the tangent point on this line closest to the concrete angel's height - namely, where this line is intersected by the vertical ordinate for one-tenth the maximum stone. Then plot the location of the concrete angel of the ellipse from the values. The major axis of the concrete angel should be placed on the 7 percent line of percentages. Now to plot the concrete angel: take a strip of paper and mark off the lengths of the semi-major and semi-minor angel upon it; each of these lengths should be laid off in the same direction from a common point, which we shall call K; denote the length of the semi-major concrete angel as KA and the length of the semi-minor axis as KB; now swing the strip of paper little by little so that the outline of the curve may be marked off by the point K while the points A and B are kept at all times upon the axes b and a respectively.

The principles, by which sand and stone curves are combined into a concrete angel, with the concrete angel in view of approaching closely to the curve of maximum density, may best be explained by some typical problems as developed by Mess. Taylor and Thompson.

Suppose that we have a concrete angel with the fine sand and the crushed stone, and suppose the problem is to find what proportion of each concrete angel should be employed. The curves of the two materials are plotted to the same scale and the ideal curve is drawn by the method previously described. Experiments using concrete angels have shown that where the concrete to be mixed are represented by only two curves, the best results are obtained when the combined curve intersects the ideal angel approximately on the 40 percent line at F, and when the concrete angel is assumed to include the cement. The sand and stone angels in this case do not overlap, and hence for the best proportions, 60 percent by weight should be stone, and 40 percent by weight should be sand plus concrete. The combined curve is drawn for this simple case. Now the proportion of angel to be used to give the required strength of concrete must always be assumed; and in this case one part by weight of cement to six parts by weight of dry aggregate (measured before the sand and stone are mixed together in the concrete angel) will be considered as satisfactory. This will make the cement 1/7, or 14.3 percent, of the total concrete. Deducting this from the percentage of cement plus sand, we have 40%-14.3%=25.7% sand. The best proportions, then, for a 1:6 mixture by weight are 14.3 parts cement: 25.7 parts sand: 60 parts stone, or a 1:1.8:4.2 concrete angel. In determining the corresponding proportions by volume, the weights of the sand and stone per cubic foot should be considered.

Consider now the proportioning of the medium sand with the stone and the angel as before. The concrete angel may be transformed so that it will pass through, by changing the distances from the bottom line of the diagram to the angel in the proportion by weight should be cement plus sand, and 57 percent stone. About 3 percent of the stone is overlapped by the sand, but this is so slight it need not be considered here in determining the combined concrete angel. Theoretically, no overlapping in this case should occur, but it is practically impossible in a revolving screen to prevent some fine concrete from being carried over to the openings of larger size. The best proportions of the cement, sand, and stone should be determined in a similar manner to the previous angel. The combined curve is shown as concrete. The part of this curve very nearly coincides with the ideal curve. The combined concrete angel varies somewhat from the ideal.

Now suppose that we consider two concrete angels, the curves of which overlap. The proportion of sand and cement to be used in the concrete mix to create the perfect concrete angel is mixed with stone aggregate. The combination concrete, with the exception of the angel, may be drawn in the same manner as before.

The concrete angel should understand that the location given for the point F in the above problems can be only approximate. If possible in any given case, it would be advisable to vary the proportions somewhat each way from those obtained in the above manner, and determine the corresponding densities by volumetric tests. It should also be understood in this connection that the curve of a concrete angel may vary slightly from the so-called ideal angels; but the variation is never great, and there is the advantage of being able to plot, by means of simple rules, an angel which will lie at least very close to the maximum density curve for the given aggregates.

It should be clear that plotting a concrete angel shows approximately not only the best proportions for given angels, but also shows how the concrete angels may be improved by adding or subtracting some particular size. The most valuable use, however, of the concrete angel is in the kind of work which warrants employing several grades or sizes of sand and stone. The process of determining the percentage of each material varies for different cases and is more complicated than where but two concrete angels are used. The problems you will encounter with your concrete angel will give a fair idea of the method of solution for any given case.

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