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Concrete Cutting Cutter Dracut MA Mass Massachusetts

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Dracut is a town in Massachusetts, located about 28 miles away from Boston in the north. It has a total area of 21.4 square miles of which 2.15% is water. Dracut consists of 5 sections, which are: Collinsville, East Dracut, Dracut Center, Kenwood, and Navy Yard. Dracut is a pleasant residential community, with a favorable location. It is situated to provide ready access to the metropolitan areas of Lowell and Boston. At the same it’s also very close to the Atlantic coastline in the east and the mountains and lakes of New England to the North.

History

Dracut was known as Augumtoocooke prior the European influx. It was an important site of the Pennacook Indians, due to the rich fishing and hunting opportunities in the area. Europeans began to settle in the area abound 1653 and established the town of Chelmsford on the other side of the Merrimack River. The land of Augumtoocooke was sold to Captain John Evered, also know as Dracut of Norfolk County. Therefore, settlers started to call this settlement Dracut after him, the owner. Although the Merrimack River separated the two towns, Dracut agreed to pay taxes to Chelmsford in 1667 for protection againstindigenous people.

In 1676 Dracut was attacked by Native Indian troops, and killed several people. Thus the city started to be dissatisfied with the protection services of Chelmsford, and wanted to gain independence. By February 26, 1701, they were separated from Clemsford, and got officially incorporated as Dracut.

Dracut’s early economy relied on fishing, lumbering and milling, and by the 19th century, they switched to paper making and cotton and textile industry.

Lowell annexed lands from Dracut twice in the 19th century, which dramatically changed is rural composition. However, there enough land remained for Dracut as well, with houses like Colburn House that dates back to about 1717.

Population

The earliest data of Dracut tells us that there were 1,173 residents living in the town in 1765. The population has grown steadily ever since and reached 29,457 residents by the census of 2010. The population density was 1,366 people per square mile and there were 10,451 households and 7,733 families in the town by 2010.

The median household income in 2010 was $57,676 and the median income was $65,633 which are both above the US average ($41,994 and $50,046). The per capita income was $23,750. Approximately 3,7% of the population was below the poverty line.

Government

Dracut is one of the largest towns to be governed by the Open Town Meeting system. Here, entitled voters can attend the Meetings, where they decide on any Town matters. There is an elected Board of Selectmen that consists of five members plus a Clerk. The Open Town Meeting is the legislative branch of the government, and the Board of Selectmen represents the executive branch.

Education

The Dracut School Department runs six schools in the area. There are four elementary schools, one middle school and one high school. Students of Dracut can also attend the Greater Lowell Vocational High School.

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Whatever the method of waterproofing used the protection must form a continuous surface around pits under boilers and so on, and the concrete must be structurally sufficient to resist all stresses due to water pressure. The strength of concrete is very variable, depending on many factors, and it requires skilled workmanship and control to secure even reasonable uniformity in quality. Average values for the 28-day compressive strength for various mixes are given in Article 18. This table gives results to be expected with specimens made and stored in accordance with standard laboratory practice. A test piece obtained by drilling a core from the concrete in place on the job should not be expected to give as great strength. In comparing test results it is important to note whether the test specimen was a cube or a cylinder since cubes show materially higher strength than cylinders on account of the lack of opportunity for free fracture along the inclined planes of maximum shear. The tensile strength of concrete is small, averaging about 10 per cent of the compressive strength. It is common to neglect it in design. The shearing strength is approximately 60 per cent to 80 per cent of the compressive strength. Working stresses for design are generally expressed as percentages of the .28-day compressive strength of cylinders. At this time the concrete has attained approximately two-thirds of the strength it will have at six months and about one-half of that at three years. Working stresses 25 per cent higher than those used in design for concrete 28 days old are usual for computing the safe loads for old structures and in designing for future additions. The average strength to be expected from various mixes and the classes of construction where they are employed may be roughly summarized as follows: Foundation walls, plain concrete, retaining walls, piers, abutments, machine foundations. Concrete is not an elastic material, strain increasing faster than stress from the very first and permanent deformation occurring under low stress. On the average the stress-strain curve in compression may be taken as approximately a parabola with vertex at the point of ultimate strength and axis vertical, stress being plotted vertically and strain horizontally. Within the range of working stresses this curve does not deviate greatly from a straight line and it is universally the custom to assume that the modulus of elasticity is a constant for working stress conditions. The values of the modulus given by different authorities differ greatly, 3,000,000 pounds per square inch being perhaps the most accepted average for ordinary 1-2-4 concrete at 28 days. As the concrete ages it gets harder and stiffer and the modulus increases in design computations a lower value than the actual is used for reasons that will appear in the discussion of the mechanics of reinforced concrete. The Joint Committee recommendations for the design modulus are given in Appendix B. Alumina cement concrete has a considerably higher modulus than Portland cement concrete of the same proportions. Strictly speaking there is no elastic limit for concrete. The term is often used inexactly however to indicate the limit of stress that may be applied repeatedly without causing increase in permanent deformation. This limit is about 50 per cent of the ultimate; loads beyond this limit and below the static ultimate when applied repeatedly, because continually increasing deformation, and, finally, rupture. The modulus of elasticity of steel is taken as 30,000,000 pounds per square inch for all grades of steel in all computations of reinforced concrete. This value is slightly higher than the average given by tests. A certain concrete has an ultimate compressive strength of 2200 lbs./sq. in. with a corresponding strain of 0.0018.

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