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Concrete Cutting Cutter Lancaster MA Mass Massachusetts

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Lancaster is a town in Massachusetts, located approximately 40 miles away from Boston is the west. It lies along routes 70, 110, and 117. The public transportation bus service is provided by MAX, between Worchester, Fitchburg, Amherst and Northampton, with intermediate stops.

According to the US Census Bureau, the total area of Lancaster is 28.2 square miles, of which 1.84% is water. The area of the town has many wilderness recreational areas, for example, the Oxbow National Wildlife Refuge, or the Lancaster State forest.

Lancaster retains a sense of history with its old-style houses, and with the church in the town green, designed by Charles Bulfinch.

History

The Nashaway Indian Tribe had lived in the area of Lancaster before the first settlers arrived. In their honor, the settlersnamed their newly established town ‘Nashaway’. The town, however, got incorporated in 1653 and was renamed ‘Lancaster on the Nashua’.

The King Philip’s war waspartially fought in Lancaster. In 1676 the Indian tribesattacked and pillaged the entire town, which was called the Mary Rowlandson Attack. The Indians reached the House of Mary Rowlandson as the last stop on their trail of destruction, and slaughtered her family, except for her husband. Mary and some of her children were taken away by the Indians. When she returned from the captivity, she wrote a book which is considered one of the best captivity narrative.

Population

In 2000, there were 7,380 residents living in Lancaster. This number included 2,049 households and 1,551 families. The population density in 2000 was 266.7 people per square mile. The average size of a household was 2.80, and the average size of a family was 3.22 in the year of the census.

The age composition of the population of Lancaster was 21.7% under the age of 18, 11.1% between the ages 18 and 24, 35.4% between the ages 25 and 44, 21.8% between the ages 45 and 64, and 9.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age of Lancaster in 2000 was 36 years.

The median household income for Lancaster was $60,752 and the median family income was $66,490. The per capita income was $21,010. About 4.1% of the population was below the poverty line in the year of the census.

Government

As most of the towns in Massachusetts, Lancaster uses the open town meeting form of government. The town meeting is the legislative branch of the government. The executive affairs are overseen by the three-member board of selectmen.

Education

Lancaster belongs to the Nashoba Regional School District. There are also private schooling options is the area. There is the Trivium Catholic School in Lancaster that was founded in 1979, and I serves as a college preparatory school. The Dr. Franklin Perkins School is a private school for children with special needs.

Lancaster is the site of the Atlantic Union College where bachelor’s degrees can be acquired in theology, biology, and health science. The South Lancaster Academy is also located in Lancaster, which is a co-educational preparatory school.

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An essential to thorough mixing is a flat water-tight platform, a convenient size being about 10 feet square, the boards forming which must be laid-with tight joints to prevent the cement and water from running through while mixing. If these boards are planed off on top it will make the shoveling easier. The operation of mixing the materials for concrete is as follows: Measure the sand and spread it in a layer of even depth as shown in Fig. 7. Place the cement on top of the sand. First turn these two materials toward the center of the board and then turn them twice more or until they are thoroughly mixed together, as indicated by a uniform color. Next wet the stone, throw it on top of the mixed cement and sand and turn the whole mass at least three times, water being slowly poured on during the first turning, the quantity varying according to the nature of the work. In general, add sufficient water to give a "mushy" mixture just too soft to bear the weight of a man when in place. Pails are most convenient for measuring the water, and enough pails should be provided in advance for wetting an entire batch. Do not use a hose. In turning the concrete use square-pointed shovels. Push the shovel along the boards under the mass; lift it, then turning the shovel carefully over deposit the material with a spreading motion. Concrete mixing machines should be used on large jobs as a matter of economy.

Place the concrete in forms in layers about 6 to 12 inches deep and tamp lightly with a rammer or puddle with a piece of FORMS 2 by 4-inch joint until the water flushes to the top. Note that the concrete must be well rammed and spaded to avoid pockets of stone forming in the concrete. The method of obtaining a smooth face on concrete frequently adopted is as follows: Thrust a spade or thin paddle between the concrete and the form, moving the handle to and fro, up and down. This movement forces the broken stone in the concrete away and brings a coating of mortar next to the form, which gives a smooth surface. Care taken in. manipulation of concrete along the moulds will be amply repaid by the smooth surface resulting, and the saving in time and expense otherwise made necessary in plastering over cavities and smoothing rough places. Concrete which is exposed to the sun should be soaked with water each day for a week or two. This will allow the interior of the walls to dry uniformly with the exterior, and thus prevent scaling or cracking. Concrete should never be placed under water if it possibly can be avoided, because the materials are in danger of separating. The danger of the fine material separating from the course was illustrated in a little test made by the engineers constructing the Holyoke Dam. A small batch of concrete was mixed in proportions one part cement to two and one- quarter parts sand to five parts stone, and shoveled into a pail of water with a trowel. The surface hardened satisfactorily, and after several months the water was poured off and the material taken out. Instead of being concrete, three layers were found. On top was a thin layer of practically neat cement, then about 2 or 3 inches of mixed sand and cement in a porous mortar, then below this a mixture of sand and stone as separate and clean as before the concrete was mixed.

This experiment and other tests show that if concrete has to be placed under water it must be deposited in large masses and never by shovelfuls. On small work put the concrete in pails, place a board over the top of the pail and lower it carefully into the water to the bottom. Turn the pail upside down, carefully remove the board and slowly raise the pail, allowing the concrete to flow out. Great care must be used neither to disturb the water in which the concrete is being placed nor to touch the green concrete.

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