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Belmont, Massachusetts is a town 9 miles away from Boston, being part of its metropolitan area. The total area of town is 4.7 square miles of which 1.06% is water. It is bordered by Watertown, Waltham, and Arlington.
People settled down in the area of Belmont in 1636, and it was incorporated in 1859 under the name of Bellmont. John Perkins Cushing provided the biggest donation to the land. After a long debate, the eastern part of the area was eventually annexed by Cambridge, which part also included Fresh Pond. This pond gives one of the biggest water supplies to Cambridge.
Before the incorporation, Belmont was largely agrarian, with many farms that provided livestock to Boston. They remained an agrarian community until the 20th century. Then, with the introduction of trolley service and better roads, Belmont started to become a more residential area with large estates. Following this change, the population started to grow as well. Then, the town switched to a commercial greenhouse base, as they mainly produce flowers and vegetables in the greenhouses. Belmont continued to meet the demands of Boston until 1983, when the last large greenhouse firm, Edgar’s closed. After that, Belmont started to change into a commuter-based suburb.
By today, Belmont is known as a primarily residential suburb, with beautiful estates and lands. The mansion filled Belmont Hill neighborhood makes this town very popular. Belmont has 3 centers: the Belmont center, located in the middle of town, Cushing Square in the southern area and Waverley Square in the west. The Town Hall and other important buildings are in the Belmont Center.
Once Belmont was served by 2 railroads: the Central Massachusetts Railroad and the Fitchburg railroad. Today, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority owns the line, however, the passenger services runs only until Fitchburg. They are planning to extend this line in the near future.
The population of Belmont grew by over 90% in the 1920s. By 2010, 24,729 residents were counted in the town, in 10,184 housing units. The population density was 5,319 people per square mile. In 2010, there were 9,732 households. In 2010, approximately 20 percentage of the residents were born outside of the United State. This number was 15 percentage in 2000.
Just like most of the New England towns, Belmont has a 3 member Board of Selectmen as the executive branch of government, and an annual Town Meeting as a legislative branch. The Board of Selectmen is elected by the residents of the town. The selectmen appoint the Town Administrator, who is responsible for daily operations. The Town Meeting has 35 representatives, ex-officio members, and a Town Moderator to run the annual meetings.
Four public elementary schools are there in Belmont to admit children: the Roger Williams School, Winn Brook, Daniel Butler, and the Mary Lee Burbank. Children can continue their studies in the Winthrop L. Chenery Middle School, which is the only public middle school in town. There is also one public high school, the Belmont High School.
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The purpose of the authors has been to present the fundamentals of reinforced concrete design as simply and completely as possible. The method of the transformed section, more familiar in European than in American texts, is used for the development of the theory as it is believed to be by far the clearest and most logical approach. It has the great advantage that instead of leaving the student with a mass of formulas which are often difficult to visualize, it impresses on his mind the basic concepts of the subject and frees him from dependence on texts and equations. The usual formulas are presented as the basis of diagrams and tables, indispensable as time-savers in practice. The computations that illustrate the application of the theory are arranged systematically in the form usual in office work, with parallel comments in the text. This manner of presentation enables the reader to grasp the problem as a logical whole and gives the student a clear idea of the proper manner of presenting design calculations and results. It is hoped that this arrangement will free the instructor from the drudgery of detailed presentation of designs and enable him to devote the class hour to general discussion of the important features. The computations cover a wide range of construction: retaining walls, slab and beam bridges, floors, columns and footings for buildings, and the hinge less arch. It is hoped that the discussion paralleling these examples will serve to make plain many matters not usually explained in text books.
Enough is included about the modern theories of concrete, formwork, drawing and detailing to give a good background of knowledge in matters where real proficiency can come only with experience. By combining the viewpoint of the teacher and the practicing engineer the authors have endeavored to direct the work of the student to practical ends with no sacrifice of theory. While the book is primarily for the student of engineering, it is believed that it will prove useful to the practitioner by reason of its compact and complete presentation of specific problems with discussion of the reasons for the various operations. Unless he is a specialist in this field he will find particularly useful the articles dealing with the analysis of rigid frames by the slope deflection method and those treating of arch design. It is assumed that the reader is conversant with the principles of applied mechanics and understands the elements of design in steel and wood, such knowledge being almost a necessity as a preliminary to the study of reinforced concrete. However, for the sake of completeness and for an aid to rapid review, these fundamental principles are outlined briefly and simply in the text.
The authors wish to express their appreciation to the many friends who have aided their work. It has been their intention to give full credit in the text to all to whom they stand indebted for material and for ideas. With the passage of time a great deal of fundamental information has become common property and the sources are too often not recorded. It is hoped that no borrowings have been inadvertently and wrongfully assumed to belong in that class. The engineer thinks in pictures at all stages of the analysis and design of structures. It is a practice the student should carefully cultivate.
As a basis for work in reinforced concrete design there are two fundamental pictures to be fixed in mind: that of a free rigid body at rest acted on by a system of coplanar forces, conforming to the conditions ZX = 0, Y = 0 and M = 0; that of the free body at rest formed by isolating a portion of a reinforced concrete member for purpose of analysis. Form the habit of expressing the problems of design simply and clearly in terms of these basic diagrams.
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