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Marblehead is a town along the Atlantic coast, Essex County, along the Massachusetts Bay. It lies approximately 16 miles north-east from Boston. According to the US Census Bureau, Marblehead has a total area of 19.6 square miles, of which 77.61% is water. The town consists of the rocky peninsula in Massachusetts Bay with a neck to the east. These two are connected with a long sandbar and a road. The town also has several islands in Massachusetts Bay and Dolliber Cove. The Forest River separates Marblehead from Salem in the west, and the area also rich in small ponds and brooks.
The town of Marblehead has four beaches, six yacht clubs, one kayaking center, and many boat ramps.
Most of the land in Marblehead is densely populated. Besides the Marblehead neck, there are other small villages that belong to the government of Marblehead, OldTown and Clifton.
Massachusetts Route 114 and 129 run through the town connecting Marblehead to the surrounding settlements. As far as public transportation is concerned, the Newburyport/Rockport line of the MBTA commuter railway goes to the neighboring Swampscott and Salem. The closest international airport is Boston’s Logan Airport.
Isaac Allerton, a pilgrim from Mayflower arrived at the area in 1626 and established a small fishing village. Then, Joseph Doliberarrived too as the first European settler in Marblehead in 1629. The settlement was incorporated as a separate unit in 1649. The town was calledMassebequash, as the Naumkeag tribe called it. By 1633 new epidemics devastated theIndian tribe, so they decided to sell the land entirely to the settlers.
After theRevolutionary war, the town continued to be a fishing town. After a disastrous hurricane that destroyed part of thefishing vessel fleet and caused the death of several fishermen and boys, the fishing industry started to decline. After the Second World War, Marblehead enjoyed a population boom and became the bedroom community of Boston and the surrounding cities. This increase stopped by 1970 when the peninsula got fully built out. Due to overcrowding, by today, fishing is banned in the region.
At the census of 2010, there were 19,808 residents living in Marblehead. This included 8,838 households and 5,467 families. The area has a high population density with 4,373 people per square mile.
The demographic composition of Marblehead is 23.6% under the age of 18, 3.5% between the ages 18 and 24, 28% between the ages 25 and 44, 29% between the ages 45 and 64, and 15.6% who were 65 years old or older.
The median household income was$97,441 and the median family income was $129,968. The per capita income in 2010 was $46,738.
The Marblehead Public Schools runs eight public schools: the Village School, the Coffin School, the Bell School, the Eveleth School, the Glover School, the Gerry School, the Marblehead Veterans Middle School, and the Marblehead High School.
Are You in Marblehead Massachusetts? Do You Need Concrete Cutting?
The rises on all steps and stairs should not be less than 6 inches nor more than 8 inches, while the tread should be from 9 inches to 12 inches, except where it is intended that more than one step should be taken on the tread, in which case 30 inches should be the minimum width. Foundations for all steps out of doors should extend below frost line or have a porous base with a drain situated at the lowest point to allow the water to run off. Steps should be wider than the walk or opening from which they lead, to avoid looking cramped, and, in order to secure an artistic effect, should have some sort of projection, or molding, at the upper edge. A slight slope to allow the water to run off is also desirable.
Let us first consider steps to areas or terraced grounds. Excavate the earth on the slope to the desired depth (see Foundations for Sidewalks) and put in 70 porous foundations with a drain at the lower end to dispose of any water that may accumulate. Take two planks the length of the flight of steps on the slope, and wide enough to house each step, and mark upon them the location of the riser for each step. Place these -planks edgewise on each side on the slope, and brace well on the outside. Place the necessary reinforcement, as given in the table, the full length of the steps on the slope. Now set planks marked (b.) Fig. 21, across these housings to form the rise of each step on the lines previously marked, placing them so that there will be a space below them for a continuous slab of concrete. The thickness of the slab is given in the table under column marked "A." These planks should be arranged with a groove at the top, as shown, to form the projection or molding at the top of each step. They should be fastened to the housing planks with cleats in such a way that they can be removed without disturbing them. Inside of each of these riser forms place a loose piece of board, well greased, as described for facing curbing on page 79, so as to provide a space which can later be filled with mortar. Now pour into the forms thus made concrete in proportions one part Portland Cement, two parts clean, coarse sand, and four parts broken stone or screened gravel, filling each step to within x inch of the top of the riser.
As soon as this concrete has stiffened, but before it has set, carefully draw out the loose facing board and fill the spaces with mortar one part Portland Cement to one and one-half parts clean, coarse sand, and also cover over the top of the step to the depth of i inch with the same mortar, so that it will come flush with the top of the riser plank. Float the surface lightly with a wooden float, and as soon as it has stiffened hard enough to work, trowel it thoroughly. Early next day remove the riser form, the bottom of which, as shown in the figure, is beveled and comes only to the top of the mortar surface, and trowel the face of each riser. A skilled plasterer should be employed for this work, as the surface is likely to crack if not handled in a workmanlike manner.
Porch steps, and other short flights, can be built as follows: Build two 8-inch walls to a depth below frost, the upper surface conforming to the desired pitch of the steps, but inches below the points where the inner edges of the treads meet the risers. Carry the outside form, however, on the same slope to the line of the top of the risers. Between the walls build a sloping platform out of 1-inch boards supported by 2 x 4-inch stuff, well braced and conforming to the slope of the walls. Upon this sloping platform place '/4-inch steel bars 12 inches apart running from top to bottom. Also, crossways place one 3%-inch bar just at the foot of each rise, and fasten these to the '/4-inch bars by soft wire. Next mark for the location of the risers the side forms which project above the 8-inch walls, place cross plank on each to form these risers, and proceed in the same manner as has been described for area steps.
Marblehead Massachusetts Concrete Cutting and Core Drilling