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Danvers is a town in Massachusetts, approximately 20 miles away from Boston in the north. It is located in Essex County along the Danvers River. It was originally called Salem Village which place was widely known for the Salem Witch Trials in 1692.
The area was previously settled by indigenous cultures of Native Americans. At the time when the colonists came to the area, the area of Danvers was mostly inhabited by the Massachusett Tribe. The first colonists arrived around 1630. They settled the area of Danvers permanently, which they named Salem Village. It was incorporated in 1752 and was named after a settler, Danvers Osborn.
In the 18th century, Danvers had an important historical role in the War of Independence. The residents participated in the armed forces of the war. Also, Israel Putnam was born in Danvers, who later on became a major general in the Revolutionary War.
In the 19th century, the town began to develop. The railroad came to Danvers, the first Town Hall was built and they opened the Danvers State Hospital in 1878.
Originally, Danvers was a largely agricultural town, however, from the late 19th century, shoe manufacturing became the prominent industry of the town.
The Salem Witch Trials
The Salem Witch Trials of 1692 and 1693, were a series of prosecutions of people who were accused of witchcraft, in the colonial Massachusetts. The trials resulted in the execution of 20 people altogether.
As of the Census of 2000, there were 25,212 residents living in Danvers. This included 9,555 households and 6,564 families. The population density was 1,898 people per square mile at the time of the census. The population has grown steadily since 1870, there was only a minor setback in 1980. In 2000 the population spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 6,5%between 18 and 24 years, 28.7% between 25 and 44 years, 24.5% between 45 and 64 years and 17.2 who were 65 years old, or older.
The median income for a household was $58,779, and per family it was $70,565. The per capita income was $26,852 in Danvers. Approximately 2.9% of the population was below the poverty line at the time of the census.
Private and public education are both provided in Danvers. There are five public elementary schools that educate children from pre-kindergarten through fifth grade. These are the Smith Elementary,the Thorpe Elementary, the Great Oak Elementary, the Riverside Elementary and the Highlands Elementary. There is one middle school in Dancers that educates children from sixth through eighth grade. Education from the ninth grade through the twelfth grade takes place in the only high school, the Danvers High School.
There are three private schools in the region. The St. Mary of the Annunciation School is from pre-kindergartenthrough the eighth grade. There is also Plumfield Academy with special philosophiceducation. And finally there is John’s Preparatory School for young men, through grades six and twelve.
Are You in Danvers Massachusetts? Do You Need Concrete Cutting?
Since one of the first requirements of good concrete is that it shall be uniform and homogeneous throughout, the minimum amount of mixing is naturally that which will evenly distribute the ingredients throughout the mixture. By the time this condition is reached the aggregate will be properly coated with cement. However, somewhat longer mixing is beneficial because plasticity or workability is thereby increased. This is due to the gradual absorption of water by the cement particles, a chemical action which converts the dry cement powder into glue and turns tarpaulins or other protection, by continuous spraying and wetting, or by a combination of all these things—the one object is to keep the concrete from drying out for as long a time as conditions permit.
In conclusion, we should like to make one additional suggestion. Every contractor or builder is concerned with progress and development in concrete construction and should endeavor to keep posted on this subject. If you aren't in the habit of reading books or magazines or articles on concrete, begin now to acquire this habit. Subscribe to one or two magazines in the concrete field and read them. The term "aggregate" is applied to the materials which are used together with portland cement in the making of concrete. These materials, sand and gravel, or stone, comprise a very large proportion of the volume of concrete. This fact alone makes very evident the necessity of a careful inspection and selection to insure a satisfactory result. The general requirements for aggregate are that they be clean, rough, dense, hard, durable, and insoluble. The most abused of these is the first mentioned. Sand or stone which to the eye is very clean is often quite unfit for use in concrete work, generally due to an excess amount of silt or rotted vegetable matter. The quality of sand can often be determined by conducting a few simple tests, which are explained elsewhere in this book. The other requirements are equally important, but are not hard to meet in any locality. Aggregate is divided into two general classifications, "coarse" aggregate being all material retained on a 1%-inch sieve and "fine" aggregate that passing through a Y4-inch sieve. Coarse aggregate is gravel or crushed stone. The gravel, pebbles or crushed stone used must be clean, hard, tough and graded in size. The strength of this aggregate will be reflected in the concrete. Fine aggregate is sand. To make concrete of high strength requires well graded sand in size from fine to coarse. Fine uniform sand is not to be recommended, but the word "sand "frequently suggests this to the inexperienced person. The use of a small washing plant, such as is shown in the sketch, often makes available sand and gravel which, unwashed, would be wholly unfit for concrete. Such a plant is inexpensive to operate. It washes and grades the material in one operation.
For purposes of estimate only the following table is of value in computing the weight of aggregate. Commercial sand and gravel companies usually provide information regarding the .weights of their particular product.
Quantities of materials given in table below have been measured loosely without compacting. This table shows very clearly how the sand and Cement fill the voids in the large aggregate or stone. Note that in a mix of 1:2:4, being 7 cubic feet of dry material; we get but 4:2 cubic feet of concrete, water and all. In other words, the addition of three cubic feet of sand and cement swells the volume of the large aggregate but a half a cubic foot. This fact makes very evident the importance of keeping the water content as low as possible, not only because it is space filler which later evaporates, but because of -the prime necessity of having the cement and sand fill every void in the large aggregate. Wet or soupy concrete will frequently result in rocky, porous.
Work requiring the extensive use of reinforcing steel, such as columns and floor slabs, should be designed by a competent engineer or architect. His services will assure correct design and remove the danger of failure due to insufficient or misplaced reinforcing material. Steel is always sold by the pound or ton, and the data given will assist in determining these amounts and facilitate the purchase in accordance with the quantities as shown on the plan of the proposed work. In the table below are given the areas and weights of square and round bars used for reinforcing steel. Square twisted bars which are used extensively have the same weight as straight-square bars.
Danvers Massachusetts Concrete Cutting and Core Drilling