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This town belongs to the Middlesex county in Massachusetts. The population density of 2010 was 11497 including the area of East Pepperell.
In 1720, as part of Groton, this city was first established. But in 1775, it was listed as atown. The name Pepperrell holds an amazing story behind it. The founder of this city named it after a colonial soldier, who fought during the King George War. Pepperell is famous for its orchards and nurturing soil.
This town has played an active role in the American Independence. This town has never witnessed an attack by the British when the American Revolutionary war was going on because of being in the northwest of Concord. Many of the brave soldiers gave the British army a hard time at the Old North Bridge. At the Pepperell covered bridge, a brave woman captured a British spy. The heroism of this town is a never ending topic.
Coming to other features of Pepperell. Pepperell was having only 3 paper mills in 1837 and the population of this town was only 1586. Besides from paper mills, Pepperell was also famous for his shoes, boots, and palm leaf hats.
In 1848 along the Nashua River, a train station and line was built in this town by the Worcester & Nashua Railroad. In 1886, the line was merged with other railway road and after that person of this area had access to various places through trains. But the great depression in 1934, ended the Pepperell stop and gradually the train station was destroyed. Gradually the railroads rusted. Till 1981 the trains passed through Pepperell but the trains did not stop. And by 1984 all of the tracks were extracted. In 2001, it again became the part of trains.
In 1901 by the combined effort of Walter B. Chambers and Ernest Flagg, the town library was built. These two brains were behind the marvelous architecture. The people of Pepperell filled the deficit of $1.3 billion in 2010 by voting yes on the Proposition 2 ½ on June 29, 2009. This vote saved the Lawrence Library, Senior Center and Community Center.
This town covers the total area of 23.2 square miles. The schooling system of Pepperell was very much strong. The town spent a lot of money on its youth recreational activities. Skydiving is the main tourist’s attraction of Pepperell among many other eyes catching places.
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An attempt to simulate such an effect by boiling the specimen in a concentrated solution of sulfate of soda and observing the subsequent disintegration of the stone, if any, is known as Brad’s test. Although this method is much used for lack of a better, its value is doubtful and perhaps deceptive, since the effect is largely chemical rather than mechanical. The destructive effect on the stone is usually greater than that of freezing, and might result in condemning a really good stone. The most difficult and uncertain matter to determine is the probable effect of the acids in the atmosphere. These acids, dissolved in rain water, soak into the stone and combine with any earthy matter in the stone, which then leaches out, leaving small cavities. This not only results in a partial disintegration of the stone, but also facilitates destruction by freezing.
If the stone specimen, after being carefully washed, is soaked for several days in a one percent solution of sulfuric and hydrochloric acid, the liquid being frequently shaken, the water will become somewhat muddy if there is an appreciable amount of earthy matter in the stone. Such an effect is supposed to indicate the probable action of a vitiated atmosphere. Of course it should be remembered that such a consideration is important only for a structure in a crowded city where the atmosphere is vitiated by poisonous gases discharged from factories and from all chimneys. A test made by crushing a concrete block of stone in a testing machine is apparently a very simple and conclusive test, but iii reality the results are apt to be inconclusive and even deceptive. This is due to the following reasons, among others: The crushing strength of a cube per square inch is far less than that of a slab having considerably greater length and width than height. The result of a test depends very largely on the preparation of the specimen. If sawed, the strength will be greater than if cut by chipping. If the upper and lower faces are not truly parallel, so that there is a concentration of pressure on one corner, the apparent result will be less. The result depends on the embedment. Specimens who are rubbed and ground with machines that will insure truly parallel and plane surfaces, will give higher results than when wood, lead, leather, or plaster of Paris cushions are employed. The strength of masonry depends largely on the crushing strength of the concrete mortar used and the thickness of the joints. Other things being equal, an increase in the crushing strength of the stone (or concrete brick) which is used does not add proportionately to the strength of the masonry as a whole; and if the concrete mortar joints are very thick, it adds little or nothing. Since the strength of the masonry is the only real criterion, the strength of a cube of the stone is of comparatively little importance. In short, tests of two-inch cubes (the size usually employed) are valuable chiefly in comparing the strength of two or more different kinds of stones, all of which are tested under precisely similar conditions. A comparison of such figures with the figures obtained by others will have but little value unless the precise conditions of the other tests are accurately known. Under any conditions, the results of the tests will bear but little relation to the actual strength of the masonry to be built. Quarry Examinations. These are generally the surest tests, and should never be neglected if the choice of stone is a matter of great importance. Field stone and outcropping rock which have withstood the weather for indefinite periods of years, can usually be relied on as being durable against, all deterioration except that due to acids in the atmosphere, to which they probably have not been subjected in the country as they might be in a city. On the other hand, however, large concrete blocks of stone can seldom he obtained from field stones. If a quarry has been opened for several years, a. comparison of the other surfaces with those just exposed may indicate the possible disintegrating or discoloring effects of the atmosphere.
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