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Topsfield Massachusetts- An amazing location to reside
Topsfield is a small town in Essex country in Massachusetts of United States. As per 2010 census report, the population was estimated to be 6,085.
The town has a total area of 33.2 km2, amongst which 30.9 km2 is of land and remaining is water. The town lies in the geographic center of the country and has bounds with some of the higher lands in the country. Great Hill is the highest point found in the town, having an elevation of 245 feet.
The town has two elementary schools namely: Steward School (pre-kg to 3rd grade) and Proctor elementary school (4th grade to 6th grade). By the end of 1970’s, these schools have elementary grades as well as students who attended the school from various parts of the town. Masconomet regional high school and middle school, together with Boxford served from 8th grade till 12th grade. Both these school enroll students from Middleton as well as Boxford.
The residents of Topsfield celebrate Memorial Day by performing a parade through the city center to honor the Topsfield’s living veterans and those who have sacrificed their life for the country.
Summer season in Topsfield begins with Topsfield historical society’s strawberry festival and it starts from early June. A bowl of whipped cream, a pile of shortcakes and bowl full of fresh strawberries are usually served by the volunteer members. This can be a small introduction to the newcomers of Topsfield. Old aged people look forward to engage themselves in the activities like art and craft displays, donations to flood areas and yet more activities.
Topsfield fair is a home festival of Topsfield. In 2008, it attracted almost 500,000 visitors all across the world. This is one of the oldest types of fair in US and was initiated in the year 1818 by Essex agricultural society. The first fair organized is cattle show and it was held on October 5th 1818. In this relate, society president named Timothy Pickering was given first place for his superior performance for his plow show.
The show ran every year, except during first 3 years of civil war and another 3 years during World War II. On the other hand, Topsfield fair also features concert events, games and carnival rides and other such traditional attractions like rabbits, crafts, horses and livestock. The fair also hosts Pumpkin weigh-off and current record was in 2012 and it weighed about 2009 pounds.
On the general concrete principle that the voids in ordinary broken stone are somewhat less than half of the volume, it is a very common practice to use one-half as much sand as the volume of the broken stone. The proportion of cement is then varied according to the strength required in the structure, and according to the desire to economize. It should he noted that in each of these cases, in which the numbers give the relative proportions of the cement, sand, and stone respectively, the ratio of the sand to the broken stone is a constant, and the ratio of the cement is alone variable, for it would be just as correct to express the ratios. The compressive strength of concrete is very important, as it is used more often in compression than in any other way. It is rather difficult to give average values of the compressive strength of concrete, as it is dependent on so many factors. The available aggregates are so varied, and the methods of mixing and manipulation so different, that tests must be studied before any conclusions can be drawn. For extensive work, tests should be made with the materials available, to determine the strength of concrete, under conditions as nearly as possible like those in the actual structure. A series of experiments made at the Watertown Arsenal for Mr. George A. Kimball, Chief Engineer of the Boston Elevated Railway Company, in 1899, was one of the best sets of tests that have been published, and the results are given in Table III. Portland cement, coarse, sharp sand, and stone up to 2 inches were used; and when thoroughly rammed, the water barely flushed to the surface. Tests made by Prof. A. N. Talbot (University of Illinois, Bulletin No. 14) on 6-inch cubes of concrete, show the average values given in Table IV. The cubes were about 60 days old when tested. With fair conditions as to the character of the materials and workmanship, a mixture of 1: 2: 4 concrete should show a compressive strength of 2,000 to 2,300 pounds per square inch in 40 to 60 days; a mixture of 1: 2: 5 concrete, a strength of 1,800 to 2,000 pounds per square inch; and a mixture of 1: 3: 6 concrete, a strength of 1,500 to 1,800 pounds per square inch. The rate of hardening depends upon the consistency and the temperature. The tensile strength of concrete is usually considered about one-tenth of the compressive strength; that is, concrete which has a compressive value of 2,000 pounds per square inch should have a tensile strength of about 200 pounds per square inch. Although there is no fixed relation between the two values, the general law of increase in strength due to increasing the percentage of cement and the density, seems to hold in both cases. The shearing strength of concrete is important on account of its intimate relation to the compressive strength and the shearing stresses to which it is subjected in structures reinforced with steel. But few tests have been made, as they are rather difficult to make; but the tests made show that the shearing strength of concrete is nearly one-half the crushing strength. By shearing is meant the strength of the material against a sliding failure when tested as a rivet would be tested for shear. The principal use of the modulus of elasticity in designing reinforced concrete is in determining the relative stresses carried by the concrete and the steel. The minimum value used in designing reinforced concrete is usually taken as and the maximum value as 3,000,000, depending on the richness of the mixture used. A value of 2,500,000 is generally taken for ordinary concrete. The weight of stone or gravel concrete varies from 145 pounds per cubic foot to 155 pounds per cubic foot, depending upon the specific gravity of the materials and the degree of compactness. The weight of a cubic foot of concrete is usually considered as 150 pounds. Cinder concrete has been used to some extent on account of its light weight. The strength of cinder concrete is from one-half to two-thirds the strength of stone concrete.
Cutting and/or enlarging door, window and bulkhead openings in concrete foundations.
Cutting 1" to 24" diameter perfectly round core holes for electrical, plumbing or vents in concrete floors and foundations.
Cutting and dicing concrete floors, concrete walkways, concrete patios or concrete pool decks for easy removal and/or neat patching.
Cutting trenches in concrete floors for plumbing, electrical, sump pumps, French drains or other utilities.
We cut and remove concrete, stone or masonry walls, floors, walkways, patios and stairs.