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Bradford, Massachusetts is a village in Essex County, south of the Merrimack River, approximately 40 miles away from Boston.
This village had many names prior to officially becoming “Bradford” on January 7, 1672. Some of the names wereRowley on the Merrimack, Merrimac Lands Rowley Village by the Merrimack. According to some records, the name Merrimack may originate from “merruh” (strong) and “auke” (place). Strong place indeed, as the farming community withstood several epidemics (throat distemper in 1736, 1762 and again in 1794, and smallpox in 1777). And yet Bradford went on and never lost its faith, and became the charming small town it is today.
Many of Bradford's founders were settlers that had emigrated from Bradford, England, in the West Riding of Yorkshire. The first meeting house was built during the 17th century where the Old Bradford Burying Ground is located today. It was replaced by another building at the beginning of the 18th century, then again in 1751 when the church was relocated to the current Bradford common. The bright white church you can see standing today, facing Bradford common, is the fifth one to be built!
When the east parish of the village joined Groveland on March 8, 1850, Bradford remained independent until it was annexed to Haverhill 47 years later.
While Bradford's main activity was farming, many mills operated in the area. Fulling mills, saw mills, grist and bark mills were a big part of the local economy. Most of them moved to Haverhill later on, or were incorporated to Groveland.
Education was and still is a big part of the community. The first mention of a school in the village dates back as early as 1701! There were seven schools already in 1820, when the population of Bradford just reached 1600 souls. Northpoint Bible College (NPBC) now offers training for students to train for Pentecostal ministry and a Master’sDegree program has been added in 2012.
Bradford is the birthplace of several notable athletes and scholars such as theologian Prof. Douglas Stuart or co-recipient of the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Prof. George Davis Snell. Pulitzer Prize winner Esther Louise Forbes attended Bradford Academy.
Here are some notable events in Bradford's history:
1676: Thomas Kimball, elected constable when Bradford was still part of Rowley, is killed during Metacom's Rebellion. His wife and children were kidnapped and taken prisoners for 41 days. They were released after Wanalancet, of the Pennacook Indians, pleaded in their favor.
1755: The Seven Years War has just begun and Capt. William Kimbal marches from Bradford to Stillwater, New York.
1775: 40 men from Bradford, led by Capt. Nathaniel gage, make their way to the Battle of Bunker Hill to fight the British.
1803: Bardford Academy, one of New England's earliest coeducational institutions, is founded.
1837: Bradford is added to the railroad network, just two years after the completion of the Canton Viaduct.
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The accuracy with which this may be done depends upon the number of separate sizes into which the aggregates are divided. In this method the cement sometimes is considered as part of the sand; sometimes its curve is plotted and used in combination with those of the coarser materials. It is more important that the actual grading curve fit the ideal in the sand-cement portion than in that of the coarse aggregate. For best results the actual curve should intersect the theoretical approximately on the 40 per cent line. Here the dot and dash line represents the combination of the materials in the proportions stated, the measurements being by weight. In this case it was decided to make the actual curve coincide with the ideal at the 0.25 in. opening, about 37 percent. The 1916 Joint Committee recommended that "the proportions should be carefully determined by density experiments and the grading of the fine and coarse aggregates should be uniformly maintained, or the proportions changed to meet the varying sizes. For reinforced concrete construction, one part of cement to a total of six parts of fine and coarse aggregates, measured separately, should generally be used. For columns richer mixes are preferable. In massive masonry or rubble concrete a mixture of 1:9 or even 1:12 may be used. These proportions should be determined by the strength or other qualities required in the construction at the critical period of use." Density experiments are easily made by determining the heaviest of a series of trial mixes of equal volume, made with varying proportions of the ingredients, the cement ratio alone being fixed. It is important that all of these trial batches be of the same working consistency and compacted in the container in a uniform manner. Sometimes dry aggregates alone are combined and studied in this way. This is a very useful method of proportioning and one especially easy of application in checking the daily work in the field. It is generally used as a check on the method of Mechanical Analysis.
The 1916 Joint Committee Report gives the following table of the ultimate compressive strength that may be expected from different mixtures: In lbs. per sq. in. at an age of 28 days, testing cylinders 8 in. in diameter and 16 in. long, made, stored, and tested under laboratory conditions. * Combined volume fine and coarse aggregate measured separately. Professor Abrams states that "with given concrete materials and conditions of test the quantity of mixing water used determines the strength of the concrete, so long as the mix is of a workable plasticity." The equation expressing this relation he found to be for average conditions. It must be kept in mind that these equations hold only for a workable mix. The limitations in the application of the water- ratio theory indicated in the following quotation are largely met by the requirement that the concrete must be of workable consistency. "So far as these tests indicate, it may be concluded that the expression 14,000 divided by 7 raised to a power equal to the water-cement ratio, is a fair measure of the strength of concrete, provided that at least one-third of the aggregate is sand (that is smaller than a No. 4 sieve) and that the quantity of coarse aggregated any one size is not less than one-third as great as that of the next larger size. Other tests not included in the investigation indicate also that the sand should not be more than half the total aggregate in order to meet this criterion." Two and a half gallons of water are sufficient for the hydration of a sack of cement, usually taken to be hardened. The diagrams and tables in this article and the next are from the pamphlet "Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures," published by the Portland Cement Association. Professor Abrams developed a measure of their size and grading which he named the Fineness Modulus. This modulus (or measure of fineness) is the sum of the percentages of the material coarser than the opening of each of the following standard series of sieves: 100, 50, 30, 16, 8, 4.
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