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Cambridge is a city situated in the Boston metropolitan area, in Middlesex County of Massachusetts State. It was named in honor if the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom. Cambridge has a total area of 7.1 square miles as of today,of which 9.82% is water.
The area of Cambridge seems safe upriver from Boston Harbor and easily defendable for the early settlers. The first settlers appeared in 1630, among which there were Thomas Dudley withhis daughter Anne Bradstreet and with her husband, Simon. The first houses were built here in 1631. Official Massachusetts records show that originally the site was called Newe Towne in 1632, and Newtowne by 1638. Newe Towne was one of the numbers of towns that were established by Puritan colonists, under the governor John Winthrop. The town originally included a much larger area than the current city does today, but these sites became independent over the many years. These were, for example, Cambridge Village – today Newton; Cambridge Farms – today Lexington; South Cambridge – today Brighton; West Cambridge – today Arlington.
Cambridge grew slowly but steadily as an agricultural village in the early times and between 1790 and 1840 it developed rapidly. Then, it got incorporated as a city in 1846.
The census of 2010 revealed that there were 105,162 people living in Cambridge.44,032 households, and 17, 420 families. The averagesize of households were 2 and the average size of families was 2.76.
The population consisted of 13.3% under the age of 18, 21.2% between 18 and 24 years, 38.6% between 24 and 44 years, 17.8% between 45 and 65 and 9.2% of 65 years old residents and older. The median age during the census was 30.5 years.
The median income for households in Cambridge atthe time of the census was $47,979 and the median income per family was $59,423. The per capita income was $31,156. 12.9% of the whole population fell below thepoverty line in 2010.
Cambridge is known as the most liberal city in the United States.
Cambridge is governed by a mayor, E. Denise Simmons, and the city council that consists of 9 members. There is also a school committee of six members. The councilors and the school committee are elected for atwo-year period. They are still using the single transferable voting system. The Council elects the mayor from amongst themselves. The mayor does not represent the executive branch of the government, but he rather serves as a city manager.
Cambridge is one of the most well-known academic and intellectual centers in the United States. The Cambridge University and the Harvard University can be found here, which are the most prominent universities in the world. Besides these two, there are other great higher education scenes in the city such as Lesley University, Longy School of Music, Massachusetts Institute of Technology or the formerly Radcliffe College that merged with Harvard University. Apart fromuniversities, there are 12 primary and secondary public education scenes in the area and also there ninehigh-level private schools as well.
It is especially important that the concrete aggregate be free from loam and other material which may cause laitance. Washed aggregates are preferable. A coarse aggregate consisting of a washed gravel of a somewhat smaller size than that used in open-air concrete work will give the best results. Concrete should never be deposited under water without experienced supervision. Many failures, especially of structures in sea water, can be traced directly to ignorance of proper methods or lack of expert supervision. Concrete shall be deposited continuously, keeping the top surface as nearly level as possible, until it is brought above the water, or to the required height. The work shall be carried on with sufficient rapidity to prevent the formation of layers. The following methods are used for depositing concrete under water: The concrete shall be water-tight and sufficiently large to permit a free flow of concrete. It shall be kept filled' at all times during depositing. The concrete shall be discharged, and spread by raising the concrete in such manner as to maintain as nearly as practicable a uniform flow and avoid dropping the concrete through water. If the charge is lost during depositing the concrete shall be withdrawn and refilled. The bucket shall be of a type that cannot be dumped until it rests on the surface upon which the concrete is to be deposited. The bottom doors when tripped shall open freely downward and, outward. The top of the bucket shall be open. The bucket shall be completely filled, and slowly lowered to avoid back-wash. When discharged, the bucket shall be withdrawn slowly until well above the concrete. Bags of jute or other coarse cloth shall be filled about two-thirds full of concrete and carefully placed by hand in a 'header-and-stretcher system so that the whole mass is interlocked. Great care shall be exercised to disturb the concrete as little as possible when it is being deposited in order to avoid the formation of laitance. On completing a section of concrete, the laitance shall be entirely removed before work is resumed. It is of the greatest importance that reinforcing bars be accurately placed and held securely so that they will not be dislodged by the rough treatment necessarily incident to the placing of the concrete. An error of 1 inch in the vertical position of slab steel may easily double the stresses and result in serious cracking. Small errors in the location of beam reinforcement may cause large increases over the figured stresses.
Conservative engineers are more and more specifying the use of some approved type of bar support, several varieties of which are on the market. The best of these devices hold the steel securely at the proper distance from the forms with proper spacing and clearances. A common method for supporting slab steel is to place the bars on precast concrete blocks of the right height. The concrete may be filled by one of the following methods: Place the lower end in a box partly filled with concrete, so as to seal the bottom, then lower into position; plug the concrete with cloth sacks or other material, which will be forced down as the pipe is filled with concrete; (3) plug the end of the concrete with cloth sacks filled with concrete."
The reinforcing bars should be securely wired together at the lap. The vertical wall rods are set into the footing concrete at least six inches. If the concrete footings are poured before the wall concrete forms are set, these rods should be placed and they then make easy the setting of the balance of the reinforcing, which may be wired to them. Having a plan and cross-section drawing of the concrete watering trough is highly recommended. The reinforcing bars should be securely wired together at the lap. The vertical wall rods are set into the footing concrete at least six inches. If the concrete footings are poured before the wall concrete forms are set, these rods should be placed and they then make easy the setting of the balance of the reinforcing, which may be wired to them. When the wall concrete is poured, the 13/ inch galvanized iron pipe are set in place four feet apart. After the concrete has been cured, these posts may be connected with pipe to make a strong railing the length of the approach. A four-inch curb is provided on the slab. This should be constructed the full width of the wall of the approach, to present a uniform appearance. In the end wall of the approach one or two openings should be left, four or five inches square, to permit drainage at all times of the earth fill with which the walls are filled. After the concrete forms are removed ample time should be allowed for the concrete to cure and harden before building up the earth fill roadway.
Concrete storage cellars have proved their worth in all sections of the country. These plans give details of a storage cellar which was built during 1924 at the Pennsylvania State College. It has been determined that dirt floors are most satisfactory, and so in this work wall and column concrete footings only were used, they being one foot deep, and of concrete, mixed in proportions of 1:2Y2:4. Walls and columns are of 1:2:4. For this work a double wall was constructed with a movable concrete form. Concrete building units, block or tile prove satisfactory for this sort of work. The monolithic concrete wall is also used extensively. The roof is of concrete mixed 1:2:3, and heavily reinforced with steel bars, a complete schedule of which is given. A section of a small storage cellar is also shown. This is built of monolithic concrete throughout, the concrete footings and walls being of concrete mixed in proportions of 1:2:4 and the-roof mixed 1:2:3. A table giving the necessary reinforcing for roof spans is necessary. The roof should be finished with a slight crown to drain water, and should be troweled smooth with a steel float. The inside walls and roof may be given a coat of portland cement mortar if desired. The deck or roof concrete forms should be left in place for at least three weeks, and the concrete should be properly cured during that time in order that it may gain its maximum strength. A good poultry house should provide perfect protection from storms, sufficient sunshine during the winter months, plenty of ventilation without drafts and uniformity of temperature. A concrete foundation and floor will provide the most sanitary and permanent base at the lowest cost consistent with good construction.
Floors of concrete do not rot or disintegrate. They are rigid and safe to walk upon, they are quickly and easily built with local materials, and may be kept clean and neat with a minimum of effort. A newly laid poultry house floor should be allowed sufficient time to dry thoroughly before being used, as fresh concrete contains considerable moisture. If time is a factor, it is best to install the floor first and build the superstructure afterward. The concrete footings and walls of a poultry house should be built first, and after removing the concrete forms, the backfill of earth should be soaked with water and well tamped in place to insure against settling under the floor after it is poured.
We Service Cambridge MA and all surrounding Cities & Towns
Cutting and/or enlarging door, window and bulkhead openings in concrete foundations.
Cutting 1" to 24" diameter perfectly round core holes for electrical, plumbing or vents in concrete floors and foundations.
Cutting and dicing concrete floors, concrete walkways, concrete patios or concrete pool decks for easy removal and/or neat patching.
Cutting trenches in concrete floors for plumbing, electrical, sump pumps, French drains or other utilities.
We cut and remove concrete, stone or masonry walls, floors, walkways, patios and stairs.