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Boxford is a town in Massachusetts, located in Essex County that is in the northeastern region of the state. Boxford lays along Route 95 and 133, approximately 30 miles away from Boston. The town kept its rural character with almost no commercial development. The area of the town is heavily forested with rich flora and fauna, streams, pond and lakes and has received the Tree City USA award five times. There are many scenic hiking trails around the city, which give a perfect recreational activity for families, hikers.
The town has a total area of 24.4 square miles of which 3.46% is water. Boxford village is divided into 2 parts: East and West Boxford. Most of the streams flow into Ipswich River along the southern border of Boxford. The highest point of the area is Bald Hill that has 243 feet elevation.
Boxford was first settled by Abraham Redington in 1646, as part of the Rowley Village. The town was incorporated in 1685, by which time approximately 40 families lived in the area. These families mostly dealt with farming and craftsmanship. Today small farms are interspersed throughout whole Boxford with their characteristic stone walls and remnants of old farming.
The largest industry was the old match factory in the area which operated between 1866 and 1905.
The first ever church was built on the lands of East Boxford in 1701. Then, in 1774, they erected another one in West Boxford as well.
During the Census of 2000, there were 7,921 people residing in Boxford. This number gave 2,568 households and 2,254 families. The population density in 2000 was 330.4 people per square miles. The population consisted of 32.2% of people under the age of 18, 4.2% between 18 and 24 years, 25.8% between 25 and 44 years, 28.5% between 45 and 64, and finally 9.3% over 65 years. 48.5% of the households lived with children under the age of 18, 80% were married couples, living together.
The median income for a single household was $113,212, and for a single family was $119,491. The per capita income in Boxford was $48,846 at the time of the census. 1.4% of the population was living below the poverty line.
Boxford employs the commonly used Open Town Meeting System. This means that the Open Town Meetings represent the legislative branch of the government that any of the citizens can attend. The executive branch is represented by the five-member Board of Selectmen and the executive Secretary.
There are three elementary schools in Boxford. Preschool through grade 2 is the Harry Lee Cole School that is located in the East Boxford Center. From grated 3 to 6, there is the Spofford Pound Elementary School in the West Town, and Boxford Academy Pre-School, a 5th-grade school is located on Georgetown Road.
Boxford also has a high school, the Masconomet Regional High School that schools children from Boxford, Middleton, and Topsfield. Students may also attend the North Shore Technical High School, in Middleton, the Agricultural and Technical High School in Danvers, or one of the nearby private schools.
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For maximum density the interstices or voids between the stones forming the coarse aggregate should be completely filled by the fine aggregate, and all remaining voids by the cement paste, which also, if it is to perform its function as a glue binding the whole mass together, must coat completely every particle. Practically never, however, is the cement content determined by study of the voids in either the fine aggregate or in the combined aggregate. Instead the cement is made to bear that ratio, to the total aggregate which experience has proved to be sufficient for ensuring the desired strength. The strongest possible concrete with the given material and assumed cement-aggregate ratio is then assured (assuming the theory and method to be correct) by taking slightly more than enough fine aggregate (5 per cent to 10 per cent excess) to fill the voids in the coarse aggregate, this excess being necessary because the measured voids are increased by the wedging apart of the stones by the mortar.
16. Arbitrary Proportions. Measurements show that much of the aggregate in everyday use contains approximately 50 per cent of voids. This early suggested the simple 1 to 2 ratio of fine and coarse aggregates which is so commonly used. The cement is combined in the proportions which tests have seemed to show necessary for obtaining the required strength, for example, 1 part cement to 412 parts of fine and coarse aggregates, measured separately, for a strong concrete for columns, a mix usually expressed as 1-1-3. Most of the concrete in this country has been mixed in such proportions as 1-2-4, 1-3-6, etc., as fixed by ordinary practice and usage. Where good judgment has been shown in choice of aggregates and in workmanship the result has been good sound concrete. To speak of these proportions as Arbitrary is something of a misnomer. It would be more accurate to speak of proportioning by the Assumption of Average Void Conditions. Obviously when the aggregates vary much from the assumed average, as when they are poorly screened and there is considerable overlapping of sizes, the resulting mixes will be unsatisfactory. Where a job is large enough to support laboratory tests more careful proportioning will unquestionably result in stronger and more economical concrete. Furthermore, aggregates of unknown quality not only should be tested before being used as described above (Arts. 9-10) but also they should be subjected to a screen test before deciding on proportions for work of any importance.
17. Mechanical Analysis. In 1907 William B. Fuller and Sanford E. Thompson made public 1 a method of combining various aggregates to give the densest mixture by means of sieve analyses of the materials. The grading of any aggregate may be recorded graphically by a curve as in Fig. 1, the abscissa of any Diameters of Sand in Inches point indicating the size and the ordinate indicating the percentage of the material finer than that size. Messrs. Fuller and "The Laws of Proportioning Concrete," Transactions Am. Soc. C. E., Volume LIX, page 67, 1907. A full description of this method is given in "Concrete, Plain and Reinforced," 3rd Edition, Taylor & Thompson. Thompson showed that when any concrete aggregates are combined so that the resulting mixture is the densest possible for that material, the grading curve for that mixture is, very closely, the combination of a straight line and an ellipse. Furthermore they showed "that a curve of substantially the same form would fit different materials” and save data for constructing this maximum density curve for a variety of aggregates: crushed rock, gravel and sand. Knowing thus the ideal curve, any given aggregates may be analyzed, their grading curves plotted and, by cut and try methods, and the proportions determined that will result in the curve most closely approximating the ideal.
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