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Gloucester is a city onthe easternmost part of Massachusetts, on Cape Ann. It lies between the Massachusetts Bay and the Ipswich Bay, approximately 35 miles away from Boston in the northeast. The city has a total area of 41.5 square miles of which almost 40% is water. The GloucesterHarbor itself can be divided into several smaller bays and harbors.
Gloucester is a popular holiday destination due to its geographical location; visitors can select from eight beaches, numerous restaurants and hotels and diverse and festivals.
Public transportation is operated by the Cape Ann Transportation Authority, which also serves the surrounding towns. With this service commuters can access the MBTSA Commuter Railway that transports people all the way to Boston. The nearest international and national airport is Logan International Airport, located close to Boston.
Gloucester was one of the English settlements of the early Massachusetts Bay Colony. It was founded in 1623 by an expedition, called the ‘Dorchester Company’ that was chartered by James I. As the soil was not fertile enough people abandoned the area of Gloucester by 1626. After a couple of years, it was re-settled and was officially incorporated in 1642. Unlike other beach towns, Gloucester was founded a bit away from the coastline.
The early industry was farming and logging. Cape Ann, however, is not well suited for farming, so farming was not large scale.
By the 1700s,Glouchester became an important shipbuilding center. The community developed into an important fishing port. The most well-known seafood business in Gloucester, John Pew & Sons was founded in 1849, then changed its name to Groton-Pew Fisheries, then to Groton’s of Gloucester in 1957.
Besides fishing, Gloucester also puts an emphasis on marine research and conservation; the Ocean Allianceheadquarter is in the city as well.
As of the census of 2000, there were 30,273 residents living in Gloucester. This included 12,592 households and 7,859 families. The population density of the city was 1,166 people per square miles. The average household size was 2.38 and the average size of a family was 3.
The age distribution of the city’s population was 22% under the age of 18, 6.5% between the ages 18 and 24, 29.9% between the ages 25 and 44, 26.1% between the ages 45 and 64, and 15.6% of 65 years or older. The median age of Gloucester was 40 years.
The median income per household was $58,568, and per family it was $80,970. The per capita income of Gloucester was $25,595. Approximately 8.8% of the population was under the poverty line.
The GloucesterPublic School District operates the schools in the city. The youngest children can start in the Gloucester Pre-School. Then, there are five elementary schools in the city, these are: East Plum Cove Elementary School, Beeman Elementary School, Gloucester Elementary School, West Parish Elementary School, and the Veteran’s Memorial School. Then, children can attend to the O'Maley Innovation Middle School, then finish their secondary studies in the Gloucester High School.
Are You in Gloucester Massachusetts? Do You Need Concrete Cutting?
What is the maximum fiber stresses in this double reinforced beam? The bending moment equals 40,000 ft.-lbs. n=15. To transform the steel-concrete section into its equivalent in concrete each area of steel is replaced by 15 X 2 = 30 sq. in. of concrete at the same level in the beam as the steel it replaces. On removing the compression steel a hole of 2 sq. in. is left in the concrete which requires an equal amount of the added concrete to fill, leaving 28 sq. in. in the compression wings. The neutral axis is found as usual. The total compression is considered to be the sum of two elements, C1 the compression on the rectangular 70 sq. in., and C2 that on the 28 sq. in. of the wings, where the stress intensity is f6. The lever arm of the couple is the distance of this resultant compression from the tension steel. In replacing the compression steel with concrete the usual practice' is to neglect the hole left by removal of the steel and assume the area added in the wings as n times the steel area. This is not unreasonable considering the uncertainty that exists regarding the true value of the modulus of elasticity of the concrete. However, this approximation is never made in column design.
If the limiting fiber stresses are f, 16,000 lbs./sq. in., fc = 650 lbs./sq. in., what is the maximum moment of resistance of the beam. The transformed section is sketched and the neutral axis located as in Example 12. The design of a double-reinforced beam to meet given conditions is considered in the next article.
Concrete Beams of Limited Size.
A beam is said to be of balanced design when both the tension steel and the concrete are stressed to their working limits simultaneously. It often happens that a beam must not exceed certain dimensions which are inadequate to provide the desired strength with a balanced design, using tension reinforcement only. Three different methods of strengthening such a beam follow: The beam shown in Fig. 22 carries a moment of 60,000 ft.-lbs. Limiting stresses are f, = 16,000 lbs./sq. in., f 650 lbs./sq. in. n = 15. What area of tension steel is required? The first problem is to determine whether the beam is larger or smaller than that theoretically needed to carry the given bending moment with the given fiber stresses, which is easily done as in Example 7 where for the same limiting stresses the moment of resist. The formulas presented by the Joint Committee are on this approximate basis. Had these arms been made thinner the procedure of the previous example would have offered a quick solution. In practice the limiting depth of a beam given is the over-all concrete dimension and it is necessary for the designer to choose the depth to the steel such that it will conform to the proper placing of the reinforcing rods used. This is one of the inevitable cut-and-try problems that is solved easily only with experience. Beams of reinforced concrete are usually of uniform section over their whole length and accordingly the area of longitudinal steel required at the section of maximum bending moment is greater than that required elsewhere. When this maximum area- is supplied by two or more bars it is possible to dispense with some of them when not needed for main tension reinforcement. This is done either by bending the surplus bars up into the web to act as reinforcement there, or by cutting them off at some point beyond where they are needed, as cover plates are cut on plate girders. The ends of the cut bars should be bent up to the neutral axis or hooked to give anchorage.' Many designers require that this be done in such manner as to keep the beam symmetrical about the vertical axis at all sections. The point where a bar becomes unnecessary may be located by computing the moment of resistance of the section with that bar omitted and finding where the bending moment equals that moment of resistance.
Gloucester Massachusetts Concrete Cutting and Core Drilling