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The city of Lawrence is situated on the northern border of Massachusetts, approximately 28 miles in the north from the state capital, Boston. Known as the Immigrant city, Lawrence has always been a multicultural, multi-ethnic city. The main wave of immigration started in the 1800s. By today, Lawrence remained an urban center with over 35%of the economy being manufacturing based. The manufactured goods of the city are electronic equipment, footwear, textiles, paper products, food, computers, etc.
Before settlers came to the area of Lawrence, the Pentucket tribe controlled the area. Europeans first arrived at the Haverhill area, in the 1640s. As colonists were following the Merrimack River, they soon arrived at the area that today is known as Lawrence. Back then, the areas of Lawrence belonged to Methuen and Andover.
Colonists started to build houses on the territory of Lawrence in 1655. The parts of Andover and Methuen were purchased to establish an industrial city. The Water Power Association members gained control over Peter’s Falls and Bodwell’s Falls where later the Great Stone Dam was built. The Association invested fifty thousand dollars for the area to develop. Lawrence was incorporated as a town first in 1847, and was called by multiple names: “New City”, “Essex”, and “Merrimac”. However, when the State Legislature recognized the community as a city in 1853, they named it Lawrence to respect Abbott Lawrence, a founding member of the Water Power Association that established the economy of the whole region.
Immigrants flooded into the area to find a better living working in the newly established economy for all around Europe. The first wave of immigrants included Irish, Germans, French, and Canadian skilled and less skilled workers in the 1840s. In the 1850s, there was a second wave, including peoplefrom Italy and Eastern Europe. However, after the War, the great wool-processing center that was established in Lawrence started to decline. Due to this, many people left the city, and the population dropped from over 80,000 citizens to about 64,000. The city had many revitalization plans over the years to restore its population, with mixed successes.
By 2000 there were 72,043 residents in Lawrence. This number included 24,463 households and 16,903 families. At the time of the census, the population density was 10,351 people per square mile. The age composition of the city was 32% under the age of 18, 11.1% between 18 and 24 years, 30.3% between 25 and 44, 16.7% between 45 and 64, and 9.8% who were 65 years old or older.
The median income was $25,983 for a household and $29,809 for a family. The per capita income for the city was $11,360, and approximately 34.3% of the population was below the poverty line.
The city has its own public school system, run by Lawrence Public Schools and there are many private schooling options as well. In higher education, there is the Northern Essex Community College as a public college that belongs to the area of Lawrence. There are also regional centers of the Cambridge College and the Suffolk University, which are private higher education scenes.
Are You in Lawrence Massachusetts? Do You Need Concrete Cutting?
Concrete must never be placed under water if there is any current, because the cement will be washed away, leaving only the sand and stone. Another method for depositing concrete under water is to pass the concrete slowly through a spout or tube which reaches to within a couple of inches of the bottom where the concrete is to be placed. The tube must be kept full and the concrete kept moving continuously and slowly through it. On large work specially designed buckets are used for depositing the concrete under water, but these are generally operated by a derrick. Surface finish of concrete may be for either of two purposes: To make the concrete more water-tight, or to improve the appearance. It is advisable to leave the outside surface of the concrete just as it comes from the forms, having used care in placing to see that there are no stone pockets or voids; or else to take off the skin of cement so as to expose the sand and stone and leave an even but slightly rough surface. On exterior surfaces a coat of pure cement will check with fine hair cracks because of the rapid drying out of the mortar. However, for the interior of a tank which will be kept wet while in use, a coat of neat cement may serve to make the concrete more water-tight. Put this on just as soon as the forms are removed, and take off forms as early as possible. In small pieces of concrete, like a small concrete trough, the inner form may be removed within two or three hours, and the wash applied immediately. Leave the outside forms, however, until the concrete is hard. Wet the inside surface thoroughly and apply the pure cement with a brush or a trowel. The best method of obtaining a good outside finish is to rub off the skin of cement which comes to the surface next to the forms and thus expose the sand.
There are various ways of doing this. The easiest way is to remove the forms as soon as the concrete is set, which for a wall may be in 24 or 48 hours; just as soon, in fact, as the concrete will bear the pressure of the thumb. Wet the surface thoroughly, and rub it either with a brick, with a board, with a plasterer's wooden float, or with a carbide block. By this plan the surface can be simply smoothed or the skin of cement can be taken off to leave a sandy finish, or by still further work the stones can be exposed. The resulting finish, while rough, should be uniform and pleasing. If the concrete has hardened, the skin of cement can be removed with a tool. A stone cutter's bush hammer can be used for this, or a tool can be made with a toothed edge. Plastering on exterior surfaces requires great care and skill to prevent cracking and peeling.
The forms in which the concrete is laid must be wet instead of oiled. Roughen the surface, either when the concrete is green, by rubbing off the cement, or by picking the hardened surface with an old hatchet or a stone axe. Wet thoroughly and apply as thin a layer as possible, about 1/16 inch thick is best, of mortar, one part granulated Portland Cement and one part fine, but very clean, sand. For thick layers, pick and wet the surface, then brush on a thin coat of pure cement grout on a small part of the surface, and before this has begun to stiffen apply the plaster. Reinforced concrete is ordinary concrete in which iron or steel rods or wire is imbedded. Reinforcement is required when the concrete is liable to be pulled or bent, as in beams, floors, posts, walls or tanks, because, while concrete is as strong as stone masonry, neither of these materials has nearly so much strength in tension as in compression. Moreover, concrete alone, like any natural stone, is brittle, but by imbedding in it steel rods or other reinforcement, the cement adheres to the metal and binds the particles together so that the reinforced concrete is better adapted to withstand jar and impact. Even railway bridges are built, not only in arch form, like a stone arch, but in some cases like a steel girder bridge, with a flat reinforced concrete floor supported by horizontal beams of the same material
Lawrence Massachusetts Concrete Cutting and Core Drilling