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Billerica is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts. It was named after the town of Billericay that is located in Essex, England. The town is located approximately 20 miles away from Boston, the capital of Massachusetts. It lays on the Northwest Expressway and routes 3 and 128 that connects it with Boston. Billerica has many agglomeration villages around, that are beloved living places for families. These areRiverside, and South Billerica East Billerica, North Billerica, Pinehurst, Nutting Lake, Rio Vista, Riverdale, and River Pines.
The MBTA Commuter Railway connects Boston with Billerica, and there is also a bus service by the Lowell Regional Transit Authority.
The two major rivers in the area of town are Concord River and Shawsheen River. It also has a lake, Nuttings Lake that provides beaches and sites to other recreational activities for the public.
The government is made up of a legislative branch represented by the approximately 240-member Town Meeting, and the executive branch, represented by the Boards of Selectmen.
In the early history of the town, a Praying Indian village was in the area of today’s Billerica, which was called Shawshin. John Winthrop, the Massachusetts Bay Governor and Lieutenant Governor Thomas Dudley were granted lands along the river of Concord. Most of the settlements around this area were to be under the supervision of Cambridge, but the issue of Shawshin was kept on being delayed due to financial difficulties. In 1652 people from the surrounding areas started to settle down in Shawshin.
The town was finally incorporated as Billerica in 1655. Originally, the plantation in Billerica was divided into four parts: Tewksbury, Wilmington, Bedford, and Billerica.
The population has increased steadily since 1850, which slowed down during the recent years. This resulted in 39,981 people by the census held in 2010. This included 12,919 households and 10,244 families living in this town. There was altogether 13,071 household units in the area of 26.4 square miles. The population density was 504.9 people per square mile.
The average household size of Billerica was 2.92 in 2010. The population spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 7.3% between 18 and 24, 34.6% between 25 and 44, 24% between 45 and 65 and 8.4% over the age of 65. This resulted in a median age of 36.
In 2010 the median income per capita was $32,517, and $87,73 per households. Altogether 3.8% was under the poverty line.
The education system of the town is built up by six elementary schools, two middle schools, and a single high school. Billerica is also home for a regional technical high school, that is called Shawsheen Valley Technical Highschool. There are no private schools in this area, however, there are many in the surrounding towns and cities.
In the industrial area of town, there are such big companies like the E Ink Corporation that is a privately held corporation of manufacturing EDPs, that is currently moving from Cambridge to Billerica, on a 140,000 square foot facility. There are many other major companies located in the industrial area of town.
Are You in Boxborough Massachusetts? Do You Need Concrete Cutting?
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North Billerica is a village of Billerica Massachusetts.
Pinehurst is also a small village of Billerica MA.
The manufacture of Portland cement lagged behind that of its lower priced rival until the modern method of manufacture (burning the cement clinker in rotary kilns) was introduced in 1892. Quickly the production of Portland cement mounted until now it ranks as one of the ten leading industries, an increase that tells eloquently of the increase in reinforced concrete construction. In 1908, Bied in France and Spacknian in the United States took out patents covering that so far surpasses Portland cement in several important respects that its advent may mark an advance comparable to that made by the introduction of Portland cement. The of the new product took place however in France where it has been manufactured in increasingly large quantities since the war. Since 1924 it has been made in this country by a single company. The beginnings of reinforced concrete go back to 1850 when the Frenchman, Lambot, constructed a small boat of that material. In England, W. B. Wilkinson patented a true reinforced concrete floor slab in 1854. Seven years later François Coignet published his statement of the principles of the new construction. In the same year, 1861, Joseph Monier, a Parisian gardener, used as for garden tubs and pots, and before 1870 had taken out a series of patents. There was comparatively little construction however until the German engineers, Wayss and Bauschinger, investigated and reported on the Mother system in 1887. From that time the use of reinforced concrete spread rapidly, the greatest developments in theory and practice being made by Austrian engineers. Melan's system, employing structural steel shapes as reinforcement, was developed in the early 90's, at the same time as that of Hennebique, whose methods, of all the pioneers, probably most nearly resemble those of today. In the United States the pioneer was W. E. Ward, who built a reinforced concrete house in Port Chester, New York, in 1872. Thaddeus Hyatt published the results of tests on various types of beams in 1877. About the same time E. L. Ransome and his coworkers were beginning their work on the Pacific coast, several notable in California in the two following decades. The Melan system was introduced into this country from Europe in 1894. Edwin Thacher began his distinguished career as a bridge builder with a Melan type arch in 1896.
'The Atlas Luxnnite Cement Co., New York City. HISTORICAL NOTE 5
During all this period structures of reinforced concrete had been modeled largely on those of the more familiar wood and steel. In 1906 Mr. C. A. P. Turner of Minneapolis devised the girder less or type of , the Mushroom floor, as he termed it. This innovation marked a great step forward in utilizing the materials in the most advantageous and economical manner, recognizing to the full the monolithic character of the . At this date the extensive use of reinforced concrete was in full swing, a use that has increased tremendously and still increases from year to year.
In so new and rapidly developing a field as that of reinforced concrete it was inevitable that construction should often be in advance of theory. This was notably the case with the fiat slab floor which is still designed by methods largely "rule of thumb." For the most part however the fundamental principles may be considered as definitely known and agreed upon having proved themselves by a long series of satisfactory structures which in many cases have endured extremely large overloading with few signs of distress. However, there are still many details to be determined and the status of the theory is far less clearly settled than is that of steel design.
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