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Hopkinton is a town is Massachusetts, approximately 30 miles away from Boston in the west. It is situated at the intersection of Routes 85 and 135. According to the US Census Bureau, the total area of the town is 28.2 square miles of which 5.82% is water.
The MetroWest Regional Transit Authority provides local bus service in the community. It takes commuters to the closest MBTA railway station in Framingham, from where they can travel to Boston. There is also the Big W Transportation and the Peter Pan Bus Lines that provides transportation within the town and between the surrounding settlements as well. The closest international airport is the Logan International Airport in Boston.
The town was first settled in 1715 and got incorporated as an independent town in the same year. It got its name after an early colonist of Connecticut, Edwards Hopkins. He left a large sum of money for New England to be invested, which money later served for the benefit of the Harvard University.
The town was a largely agricultural community. They first started to grow crops. Fruits and dairy industries developed later. In the 1840s, boot and shoe industries were introduced and by the 1850s, there were 11 shoe and boot factories in Hopkinton.
The waters of the town flowing from the large swamp from the south were believed to have magical healing power. Therefore the town quickly built a resort area to attract more visitors.
Hopkinton gets the most attention once per year when the Boston Marathon is organized in the area, as Hopkinton is the starting point of the competition. The town has enjoyed this role since 1924.
As of the census of 2010, there were 14,925 residents in Hopkinton. This number included 4,957 households and 3,978 families. The population density in 2010 was 568.4 people per square mile. The average family size was 3.38 and the average household size was 2.99.
The demographic composition of the town is well-distributed, with 33.6% under the age of 20, 3.4% between the ages 20 and 24, 22% between the ages 25 and 44, 33% between the ages 45 and 64, and 7.9% who were65 years old or older.
The median household income in 2000 was $89,281, and the median family income was $102,550. The per capita income for 2000 was $41,469. Approximately 1.7% of the population of Hopkinton was below the poverty line.
Hopkinton has an own School system, which serves children from the kindergarten through the twelfth grade. The Center School serves children from the kindergarten through the first grade. Elmwood School serves students in grades 2-3, and grades 4-5 attend Hopkins School. The Hopkinton Middle School educated children from grade 6 through grade 8 and students can finish their studies in the Hopkinton High School.
Hopkinton has kept the Open Town Meeting form of government ever since it was incorporated in 1715. Affairs of day-to-day operation had been overseen by the Board of Selectmen until 2007. Since then, the Town Manager is responsible for the daily operation of town, however, he has to report regularly to the selectmen.
Are You in Hopkinton Massachusetts? Do You Need Concrete Cutting?
So much more cement is thus required with the natural gravel that a saving of one bag of cement in every seven is made by screening and remixing in the right proportion. Screenings from broken stone make an excellent fine aggregate, which can be substituted for sand unless the stone is very soft or contains a large percentage of mica. Gravel or broken stone forms the largest part of the mass. The ingredients create coarse of a good concrete, and is called the coarse aggregate. If the concrete is to be used simply for filling, or in a low wall against which nothing is to be piled, clean cinders, screened to remove the dust, may sometimes be used for the coarse aggregate. The concrete made from them, however, is not strong and is very porous. Slag or broken brick are sometimes used for the, coarse aggregate.
The size of the stone is best graded from fine, particles about '/ inch diameter up to the coarser. The largest size pieces may be 2'/2 inches where a foundation or a wall 12 inches thick or over is being built, while for thin walls and where reinforcement is used the largest particles had best be about 3/4-inch size. With gravel the danger is apt to lie in the grains being coated with clay or vegetable matter which prevents the cement from sticking to them, and hence a very weak concrete results. The method for washing gravel should be the same as that described for sand (see page 14) and shown in Fig. I. The screen when washing the gravel should have openings 1/4 inch square. Do not use dirty stone or gravel in any case. Avoid soft sandstones, soft freestones, soft limestone, slate and shale. The water used for concrete must be clean. It should not WATER be taken from a stream or pond into which any waste from chemical mills, material from barns, as manure, or other refuse, is dumped.. If the water runs through alkali soil or contains vegetable matter it is best to make up a block of concrete, using this water, and see whether the cement sets properly. Do not use sea water. Concrete is composed of a certain amount or proportion of PROPORTIONS cement, a larger amount of sand, and a still larger amount of stone. The fixing of the quantities of each of these materials is called proportioning. The proportions for a mix of concrete given, for instance, one part of cement to two parts of sand to four parts of stone or gravel, are written 1:2:4, and this means that one cubic foot of packed cement is to be mixed with two cubic feet of sand and with four cubic feet of loose stone.
For ordinary work use twice as much coarse aggregate (that is, gravel or stone) as fine aggregate (that is, sand). If gravel from a natural bank is used without screening, use the same proportion called for of the coarse aggregate; that is, if the specifications call for proportions x :2:4, as given above, use for unscreened gravel (provided it contains quite a large quantity of stone) one part cement to four parts unscreened gravel. If when placing concrete with the proportions specified, a wall shows many voids or pockets of stone, use a little more sand and a little less stone than called for. If, on the other hand, when placing, a lot of mortar rises to the top, use less sand and more stone in the next batch. In calculating the amount of each of the materials to use for any piece of work, do not make the mistake so often made by the inexperienced that one barrel of cement, two barrels of sand and four barrels of stone will make seven barrels of concrete. As previously stated, the sand fills in the voids between the stones, while the cement fills the voids between the grains of sand, and therefore the total quantity of concrete will be slightly in excess of the original quantity of stone.
The following quotation from Concrete, Plain and Reinforced by the well-known authorities, Taylor and Thompson, is printed as a guide to those who wish to build any concrete structure for which specific instructions are not given in the following pages. "As a rough guide to the selection of materials for various classes of work, we may take their proportions which differ from each other simply in the relative quantity of cement." A Rich Mixture for columns and other structural parts subjected to high stresses or requiring exceptional water tightness: Proportions—x:I2:3; that is, one barrel (4 bags) packed Portland cement to one and one-half barrels cubic feet) loose sand to three barrels (11.4 cubic feet) loose gravel or broken stone.
Hopkinton Massachusetts Concrete Cutting and Core Drilling