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Dunstable is a town in Massachusetts, located approximately 40 miles away from Boston in the northwest direction. The closest big city is Lowell, that is only a 20-minute drive from Dunstable. The town got its name after the English Town, Dustable, Bedfordshire where Edward Tyng, the founder of the US settlement was born. The town is a rural community, where volunteer participation is of high importance. The government of the town highly relies on these volunteer groups.
The town has a total area of 16.7 square miles of which 1.13% is water, according to the United States Census Bureau.
Transportation is limited in this area, however, there are buses and trains that people can take to the surrounding towns and cities.
Dunstable was first settled by Europeans in 1656, then it finally got incorporated in 1673 and was named after Dunstable, Bedfordshire, England. The original township that was granted in 1661, and the total area consisted of 200 square miles, including Hollis, Nashua, Hudson, New Hampshire, Tyngsborough, Townsend, Pepperell, Dunstable and other small settlements as well. The increase in population led to the independence of these formerly small towns. In 1740 Dunstable got a border in the north so it became clearly separated from all the other towns.
During the census of 2000 there were 2,826 residents in Dunstable. This included 923 households and 798 families. The population density was 171 people per square mile at the time of the census. The racial composition was built up of 97.49% Whites1.52% Asians, 0.11% African-Americans, 0.04% Native Americans and 0.07% from other races.
The population spread out with 31.1% people under the age of 18, 4.4% between 18 and 24, 31.4% between 24 and 44, 26.1% between 45 and 64, and 6.8% of 65 years or older. Thereforethe median age was 37 years. The female-male ratio was 100/97.7.
The median household income was $86,633 and the median family income was $92,270 at the time of the census. The per capita income was $30,608. Approximately 1.9% of the population of Dunstable was under the poverty line.
Dunstable uses the Open Town Meeting system as most of the towns in Massachusetts. The annual Town Meeting is open to any citizen but only registered voters may vote. The Meeting is thelegislative part of the government. The executive branch is represented by the 3-member Board of Selectmen, who are elected for three-year terms. The Board of Selectmen is responsible for fiscal guidelines for the annual operating budget, facilitating public discussion of different town matters, and other executive tasks.
There are five schools in Dunstable. There is one pre-kindergarten andkindergarten, the Boutwell School. There are two Elementary schools, the Swallow Union and the Florence Roche elementaryschools. There is one middle school that serves children from grades 5 through 8, the Groton-Dunstable Middle School. From this middle school, children can continue their studies in the Groton-Dunstable High School.
Compute the value of the modulus of elasticity for a stress of 700 lbs./sq. in. This modulus is the slope of the chord connecting the given stress with the origin and is called the secant modulus. Concrete which may be better expressed in words, using the terminology of the surveyor offsets vary as the squares of the distances. On hardening in air concrete shrinks about 0.0005 of its length due apparently to the drying out. Hardened in water it expands slightly but if later removed from water it shrinks nearly the same as though originally hardened in the air. In consequence of this shrinking compressive stresses are set up in any embedded steel which are generally ignored so far as the principal reinforcement is concerned. When any mass of concrete is not free to contract on shrinking or with temperature fall it becomes necessary to provide reinforcement to compel the formation of many small cracks in place of a few large ones.
For this purpose small deformed rods of high carbon steel with a cross-sectional area of 0.002 to 0.005 of that of the concrete are conservatively used. "Expansion from a rise of temperature rarely causes trouble except at angles where the lengthening of the surface may produce a buckling." The coefficient of expansion for concrete has an average value of about 0.000006 per degree Fahrenheit. The 1924 Joint Committee recommends the use of 0.5 per cent of steel to prevent the opening of construction joints. Steel and concrete change in length with temperature variations very nearly the same amount so that there is practically no stress set up on this account tending to break the bond between the two materials. The coefficient of expansion for steel is 0.0000065 per degree Fahrenheit. It would be impossible to reinforce concrete with steel rods but for the adhesion of the concrete to the steel so that there is no slipping between the two materials as the combined member deforms under load. In design care must be taken that there is no excessive tendency for the steel to slip from the grip of the surrounding concrete since in general a small movement will result directly or indirectly in the destruction or serious damage of the piece. This bond, or resistance to sliding, is of two kinds: an adhesion between the two materials and a sliding resistance that develops after the adhesion is broken and movement begins.
Tests made at the Structural Materials Research Laboratory' by pulling out, ordinary plain round rods from 8 inch by 8 inch concrete cylinders of different ages, where the only resistance to the pull was the force developed by bond on the surface of the rod, showed that there was no slip until the bond stress reached an average value of about 10 per cent to 15 per cent of the compressive strength of the concrete, and that the maximum bond resistance, reached when the slip was about 0.01 inch, equaled approximately 24 per cent of the concrete strength. Earlier tests made at the University of Illinois' showed that square bars give results about 75 percent of those obtained with plain round bars. The same series of tests proved that deformed bars begin to slip at about the same bond stress as plain rounds and that the resistance to sliding offered by the bearing of the projecting lugs on the concrete, while considerably larger than that for the plain bars, does not become effective until a considerable slip has occurred. "The large slip and the high bearing stresses developed in the later stages of the tests show the absurdity of seriously considering the extremely high values that are usually reported to be the true bond resistance of many types of deformed bars."
The reputed value of square twisted bars as offering high bond resistance was also denied by these tests, these bars showing lower bond stresses at small slips than the rounds and developing high resistance only at extremely large slips. The use of deformed bars of proper design may be expected to guard against local deficiencies in bond resistance due to poor workmanship and their presence may properly be considered as an additional safeguard against ultimate failure by bond. However it does not seem wise to place the working bond stress for deformed bars higher than that used for plain bars.
Cutting and/or enlarging door, window and bulkhead openings in concrete foundations.
Cutting 1" to 24" diameter perfectly round core holes for electrical, plumbing or vents in concrete floors and foundations.
Cutting and dicing concrete floors, concrete walkways, concrete patios or concrete pool decks for easy removal and/or neat patching.
Cutting trenches in concrete floors for plumbing, electrical, sump pumps, French drains or other utilities.
We cut and remove concrete, stone or masonry walls, floors, walkways, patios and stairs.