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The small town called Tewksbury is a friendly country situated in Middlesex country of Massachusetts, in United States. The approximated population of the town was about 28,961 as per census conducted.
Though the town was first settled in 1637, yet it was officially incorporated in the year 1734. The place is well known for its historic visit by President Andrew Jackson. The oldest section of the place is the area situated around Shawsheen River. This is where Shawsheen tribe is situated thereby allowing them to get access to food source.
Government of town Tewksbury Massachusetts
Tewksbury operates under New England Town government. Every day management of town was handled by Town manager who in turn reports of the Board of Selectmen members. Every citizen of the town conducts an Open Town Meeting wherein the budget is approved by the citizens of the town.
The town is one amongst the Republican towns in Commonwealth. In fact, it is one of few towns that supported John McCain over the Barrack Obama in the presidential elections conducted in the year 2008.
The town is served by Boston television stations and newspapers like Lowell Sun and Town Crier on weekly basis. An episode of WWE Raw by John Cena was filmed in Boston.
Education system of Tewksbury
The public schools of the town serve the students of pre-kinder garden till 12th grade. In this relate, there are two junior schools and 4 elementary schools respectively-
- John F. Ryan elementary school (from grade 5th to 6th).
- John W. Wynn Middle School (from grade 7th to 8th).
- Tewksbury memorial high school (from grade 9th to 12th).
When it comes to higher education system, there is a nearest community college named as Middlesex community college. It has two main campuses in Lowell and Bedford. The private colleges of the place are Merrimack College, North Andover and several other institutions are situated at one hour drive from Boston. The University of Massachusetts Lowell has a number of state colleges in Framingham and Salem.
The hospital in Tewksbury has top notch quality facility. Initially, the hospital was built as an almshouse in mid of 19th century covering an area of 900 acres. The hospital is a home for both Departments of public health as well as mental health. A number of programs were organized for alcohol addictive behavior and other such health issues. Anne Sullivan (the teacher of Helen Keller’s teacher) spent her precious time at hospital.
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Concrete is perfect for slab work or bridge abutments where natural cement would be used at all. Portland cement will be used to make 1:3 concrete mortar for ordinary work, and 1: 2 concrete mortar for very high-grade work. As previously stated, a small percentage of lime is sometimes substituted for an equal volume of cement in order to make the concrete mortar work better. Concrete is composed of a mixture of cement, sand, and crushed stone or gravel, which, after being mixed with water, soon sets and obtains a hardness and strength equal to that of a good building stone. These properties, together with its adaptability to monolithic construction, combined with its cheapness, render concrete very useful as a building material. Theoretically the proportioning of the sand and cementing material should be done by weight. It is always done in this way in laboratory testing.
The volume of a given weight of cement is quite variable according as it is packed or loosely thrown in a pile. The same statement is true of sand. Since a barrel of Portland cement will increase in volume from 10 to 40 percent by being merely dumped loosely in a pile and then shoveled into a measuring box, a contractor will frequently attempt to take advantage of this expansion by measuring the cement loose rather than by using the proportions as indicated by the original volume in the packed barrels. To a less extent the same uncertainty exists regarding the condition of the sand. Loose, dry sand occupies a considerably larger volume than wet sand, and this is still more the case when the sand is very fine. The general principle to be adopted is that the amount of water should be just sufficient to supply that needed for crystallization of the cement paste; that the amount of paste should be just sufficient to fill the voids between the particles of sand; that the concrete mortar thus produced should be just sufficient to fill the voids between the broken stones. If this ideal could be realized, the total volume of the mixed concrete would be no greater than that of the broken stone. But no matter how thoroughly and carefully the ingredients are mixed and rammed, the particles of cement will get between the grains of sand and thus cause the volume of the concrete mortar to be greater than that of the sand; the grains of sand will get between the smaller stones and separate them; and the smaller stones will get between the larger stones and separate them.
Experiments have shown that, even when the volume of the concrete mortar was only 70 percent of the volume of the voids in the broken stone, the volume of the rammed concrete was percent more than that of the broken stone. When the theoretical amount of concrete mortar was added, the volume was 7.5 percent in excess, which shows that it is practically impossible to ram such concrete and wholly prevent voids. When concrete mortar amounting to 140 percent of the voids was used, all voids were apparently filled, but the volume of the concrete was 114 percent of that of the broken stone.
Therefore, on account of the impracticability of securing perfect mixing, the amount of water used is always somewhat in excess (which will do no harm); the cement paste is generally made somewhat in excess of that required to fill the particles in the sand (except in those cases where, for economy, the concrete mortar is purposely made very lean); and the amount of concrete mortar is usually considerably in excess of that required to fill the voids in the stone. Even when we allow some excess in the above particulars, there is so much variation in the percentage of voids in the sand and broken stone, that the best work not only requires an experimental determination of the voids in the sand and stone which are being used; but, on account of the liability to variation in those percentages, even in materials from the same source of supply, the best work requires a constant testing and revision of the proportions as the work proceeds. For less careful work, the proportions ordinarily adopted in practice are considered sufficiently accurate.
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