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Georgetownis located 30 miles away from Boston is the North. According to the United States Census Bureau, the total land of Georgetown is 13.2 square miles of which 2.20% is water. Georgetown lies of the edge of the coastal plain and the hills is Massachusetts. The area is rich is brooks, streams and ponds, such as the Rock Pond or the Pentucket Pond.There are several protected lands is the area as well, such as the Crane Pond Wildlife ManagementArea, or the Georgetown-Rowley State Forest.
The Interstate 95, Routes 97 and 133 run through the town, making the surrounding towns accessible by car. This is very important, as there is no public transportation to the surrounding areas; the nearest railway service can be found along the Newburyport/Rockport MBA Line.
The area of Georgetown was first settled by Europeans in 1639,lead by Reverend Ezekiel Rogers. At the beginning this new settlement was part of Rowley. More and more farmers settled down in the western part of the settlement as the fields were suitable for farming. They created Rowley’s West Parish. However, the village became a victim of Indian raids.
The part of the village that survived, New Rowley begun to grow. Many mills were built in the area, and eventually a shoe company opened its gates. By 1838, the settlement was big enough to get incorporated as an independent unit, and it wasrenamed Georgetown to honor George Washington.
At the census of 2000, there were 7,377 residents in Georgetown. Out of this number, there were 2,566 households and 2,024 families. The population density of Georgetownwas 570.2 residents per square mile. The average family size was 3.27 and the average household size was 2.87 at the time of the census.
The population was spread out with 28.6% under the age of 18, 5% between the ages 18 and 24, 31.9% between the ages of 25 and 44, 25.1% between 45 and 64, and 9.4% of 65 years or older. The median age in 2000 was 37 years.
In 2000, the median income was $108,137 for a household and $79,649 for a family. The per capita income in Georgetown was $28,846. Approximately 4.2% of the whole population of Georgetown was under the poverty line.
Georgetown is run by the open town meeting form of government. This means, that the legislative matters are discussed at an Annual Open Town Meeting. The executive matters belong to the five-member board of selectmen. The Town Administrator helps the work of the Selectmen.
Unlike its surrounding municipalities, Georgetown has its own municipal school district, and it is not part of any regional school association. There are three schools in Georgetown, these are the Perley Elementary School, the Penn-Brook Elementary School, and the Georgetown Middle-High School. The Whittier Regional Vocational School also belongs to the area, as the Eastern Merrimack Valley’s school. Children can also select from various private schools from the area, of which the biggest is the Governor’s Academy.
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Concrete Tee Beams
In practice tee beams usually form part of floor system and act integrally with the slab on either side, which forms a flange giving added strength in the compressive part. When beams are widely spaced the compressive stresses are not uniform in intensity across the whole width of slab. In order to investigate or design the usual tee beam it is necessary to make some assumption regarding the width of slab that may reasonably be considered to act with the stem and be uniformly stressed over the whole width. If this width is assumed too large, not only will the total compression be given an exaggerated value provided enough steel is used to develop it, but also excessive shearing stresses will be induced at the junctions of the flange and stem. There is more or less disagreement among design specifications regarding the proper limit for flange width and the Joint Committee rule of 16 times the flange thickness plus the stem width is rather higher than is customary. There are two approaches to the problem of designing a tee beam with the flange provided by a floor slab. One method considers the full width of flange available to be in action. Usually the compressive stress in the concrete is found by this assumption to be low in value. The other method assumes that the limiting working stresses are realized and that the width of slab called into play is only that necessary. Usually this width is less than the limit set by the codes. The neutral axis and the lever arm of the resisting couple have different values by these two methods. Of course the actual values are uncertain and neither assumption is more than a convenience which gives satisfactory results.
The design of T-shaped beams consists in proportioning the stem or web (the portion below the slab), and determining the tension steel area. Since proportioning the stem requires consideration of the shearing stresses, that part of the problem is deferred until later. The following examples illustrate the determination of the required steel area in a given tee beam and the investigation of a given beam. These examples are carried through with greater precision than is necessary in order to illustrate clearly the method of analysis. The design of an independent tee beam not connected with a floor slab is considered in Art. 48 and the design of tee beam stems in Chapter XII. The thickness of the flange leads one to suspect that the neutral axis falls within it, and accordingly the investigation proceeds as for a rectangular beam. Taking moments of the areas of the transformed section about the neutral axis: It is plain that this is simply a rectangular beam with a portion of the concrete below the neutral axis removed, a change that does not affect the moment of resistance. The methods described will suffice for this beam. Had the axis fallen in the stem the procedure would have been that of the succeeding With a total moment of 40,000 ft.-lbs., what is the maximum fiber stresses in the tee beam of Fig. 17, the flange thickness being made 3l in. instead of 6 in.? n = 15.
Sketch the transformed section and locate the center of gravity in order to find the neutral axis, dividing the compression area into the two parts indicated; taking moments about the unknown neutral axis:
Concrete Beams Reinforced for Both Tension and Compression
A concrete compression member is both stiffened and strengthened by longitudinal steel reinforcement, provided that this reinforcement is properly restrained from buckling. The two materials will deform equally, the stress being transmitted to the steel by the bond between the steel and the concrete. Accordingly the unit stress in the compression steel equals that in the concrete at that point multiplied by the value of n. The steel in the compression part of a beam acts in the same way. However such reinforcement is not economical since the ratio of the cost per unit volume of the steel as compared with the concrete is always greater than the value of n, the ratio of the stresses in the two materials at the same point.
Georgetown Massachusetts Concrete Cutting and Core Drilling