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Rowley is one of the small towns in the Essex country of Massachusetts of United States. According to 2010 census, the population of the place was approximately about 5856. This small town is a narrow and long township located towards north-eastern section of the society and 32 miles from Boston through rail mode of transportation.
The town was officially incorporated in the year 4th September 1639 and is now extended from sea to Merrimac River. For some duration the town was called as “Rowley village”.
History of Rowley - A narrow town
Plum Island belongs to Rowley, but the land of the town is of no value. The surface of Rowley is completely drained by the Mill River as well as its tributaries. The River of Plum Island features a shallow and broad creek. It separates main town from the Plum Island. The Mill River has some motive power and the banks of the Rowley River are bounded in clams. The town’s surface is fully diversified and is situated 264 feet above the sea level. The soil of Rowley is well adapted to the enhanced growth of fruit trees corns, hay, forest, barley, oats and culinary vegetables.
When we speak about population of the town in 1875, it was about 1162, out of which 560 were females and remaining were males. There was only person of aged 97 years was living in the town. The town had nearly 179 farmers, 92 shoe makers and 16 merchant and traders. There were 5 female teachers, 6 housekeepers, 18 domestic servant and 297 housewives.
The number of dwellings was 253, 7213 acres of land, 183 cows, 353 oxen, 40 sheep’s, 14 apple trees and total asset of the town was $515,461.
Important assets of the town
The town boasts 4 public schools and two churches, out of which one of Congregational and other church is Baptist. There is a famous and repeatable hotel for accommodation for travelers called “The Eagle House”. There are two saw mills, one of grist mills and other one is Shingle mill.
All in all, it can be said that Rowley is a pleasant town in Essex Country. The place has everything about prosperous and agreeable aspects. During summer, it’s almost impossible to go through green hillocks, grasses and flowers. A visit to this place is enough to fill the cup of happiness.
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Coloring of the face is often desired. Mineral coloring, rather than chemical, should be used, as the chemical color may injure the concrete-or fade. The following is quoted from a paper by N. F. Palmer, C. E.: Concrete blocks 8 by 9 by 32 inches; gang consisted of five workmen, and foreman; record for one hour, 30 concrete blocks; general average for 10 hours, 200 concrete blocks. The itemized cost was as follows: This is apparently considerably cheaper than the first case, even after allowing for the fact that the second case does not provide for interest, depreciation on plant, etc., which in the first case is only 4 percent of the total. This allowance of 4 percent is probably too small. The principal cementing materials are Common Lime, Hydraulic Lime, Pozzolana, Natural Cement, and Reinforced concrete and Portland cement. There are a few other varieties, but their use is so limited that they need not be considered here. This is produced by burning "limestone" whose chief ingredient is carbonate of lime. Except in the form of marble, a limestone usually contains other substances perhaps up to 10 percent of silica, alumina, magnesia, etc.
The process of burning drives off the carbonic acid, and leaves the protoxide of calcium. This is the lime of commerce; and to preserve it from deterioration, it must be kept dry and even protected from a free circulation of air. When exposed freely to the air for a long period, it will become air-slaked; that is, it will absorb both moisture and carbonic acid from the air, and will lose it ability to harden. The first step in using common lime is to combine it with water, which it absorbs readily so that its volume is increased to 2 or 3 times what it was before. Its weight is at the same time increased about one-fourth; and the mass, which consisted, originally of large lumps with some powder, is reduced to an unctuous mass of smooth paste. The lime 'is then called slaked lime, the process of slaking being accompanied by the development of great heat. The purer the lime, the greater the development of heat and then the greater the expansion in volume occurs. It is soluble in water which is not already "hard," or which does not already contain considerable lime in solution. A good lime will make a smooth paste with only a very small percentage (less than 10 percent) of foreign matter or clinker. By such simple means a lime may be readily tested.
The hardening of common lime concrete mortar is due to the formation of a carbonate of lime (substantially the original condition of the stone) by the absorption from the atmosphere of carbonic oxide. This will penetrate for a considerable depth in course of time; but instances are common in which masonry has been torn down after having been erected many years, and the lime concrete mortar in the interior of the mass has been found still-soft and unset, since it was hermetically cut off from the carbonic oxide of the atmosphere. For the same reason, common lime concrete mortar will not harden under water, and therefore it is utterly useless to employ it for work under water or for large masses of masonry.
When the qualities of slaking and expansion are not realized or are obtained only very imperfectly, the lime is called lean or poor (rather than fat) and its value is less and less, until it is perhaps worthless for use in making concrete mortar, or for any other use except as fertilizer. The cost of lime is about 60 cents per barrel of 230 pounds net. This is derived from limestone containing about 10 to 20 percent of clay or silica, which is intimately mixed with the carbonate of lime in the structure of the stone. During the process of burning, some of the lime combines with the clay (or the silica) so as to form the aluminates or silicate of lime. The excess of lime becomes quicklime as before. During the process of slaking, which should he done by mere sprinkling, the lime having been intimately mixed with the clay or silica, the expansion of the lime completely disintegrates the whole mass.
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