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Leominster is a city, located in Worchester County, Massachusetts. It is located approximately 40 miles away from the state capital, Boston.
Nashua River flows through the eastern and the northern part of the city. The No Town Reservoir and the 4,300 acres Leominster State Forest are popular hiking and recreational destinations. In the State Forest, the Crow Hill Pond and the Paradise Pond are beloved places for family picnics. The Leominster Recreation Department otherwise maintains 103 acres of property within the city borders including parks and playgrounds. Some of the most popular places in the city are the Monument Square, the Evelyn Hachey Park, or the Arthur A. Fournier Sr. Memorial Park.
The Penacook and Nipmuc Native Americans had lived along the Nashua River before the Europeans arrived at the New World, gradually from the mid-17th century. In 1653 the area of Leominster was founded as part of Lancaster.
At the beginning, the native tribes and the European settlers lived in peace next to each other, until the outbreak of the King Philip’s War. The war between the native peoples and the European settlers killed hundreds of people. As a result, peoplestarted to flee from this area, thus Lancaster became abandoned for a couple of years.
People started to move back gradually, as settlers began negotiations with Chief Sholan to prevent any further wars. By 1737,the area f Leominster gained enough residents to be acknowledged as a separate town. In 1740, it was officially incorporated as the Town of Leominster. By the 1800s, the town became an important hub of transportation.
At the beginning,Leominster was a farming community but by the 19th century, the economy shifted towards manufacturing. The main factories were paper mills, piano makers, and comb factories. The first settlers were mainly from England, however, many other European nations started to move to this area due to the job opportunities. Mainly Irish, French, and Italians gathered to work in the factories. The city became known for inventing the injection molding and implementing the celluloid in the comb industry and later gained the name Pioneer Plastics City. The Great Depression also affected the plastic industry, then by the end of the 20th century it was moved to the countryside or overseas.
At the census of 2000, there were 41,303 residents in Leominster. This number included 16,491 households and 10,900 families. The age composition of the population was 25.5% under the age of 18, 7.2% between the ages 18 and 24, 32.4% between the ages 25 and 44, 21.3% between the ages 45 and 65, and 13.6% of 65 years of age or older. The median income was $44,893 for a household and $54,660 for a family. The per capita income was $21,769. Approximately 9.5% of the population was below the poverty line.
The public education is controlled by the Leominster Public School District. The city has four elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school. There are private schooling options as well, the St. Leo Catholic School and St. Anna Catholic School.
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Reinforcement may be iron or steel. Steel is nearly always used because it is nowadays cheaper than iron and easier to buy. The ordinary iron rods, so-called, as found in the stores are almost always steel. Round rods or square twisted rods, or rods with special surfaces designed to better prevent pulling out from the concrete, are used in most of the important work in reinforced concrete. For slabs, metal fabrics like expanded metal or woven wire is frequently used instead of rods. In some of the smaller structures described in the pages which follow, the reinforcement is put in to prevent cracking, and, as stated in the text, almost any kind of wire can often be used. Nearly every farmer has fence wire which is well adapted for reinforcing watering concrete troughs and for small pieces of work. Concrete, like other materials, shrinks when the weather is cold, and it also shrinks in setting, so that a long wall is bound to have occasional cracks in it unless it is very heavily reinforced or unless joints are placed every 30 feet or so. An engineer or architect experienced in reinforced concrete design should be employed in preparing the plans for houses, barns or other large structures, but by carefully following the directions and specifications in this booklet small reinforced concrete construction may be safely undertaken by the inexperienced. The table which follows gives the thickness and reinforcement of slabs, and the dimensions and reinforcement of reinforced concrete beams for a number of conditions which are liable to be met with in common practice. While the values are as low as should be adopted without knowing the local conditions, complete mathematical calculations of dimensions should be made for large structures, not only from the standpoint of safety, but also because of the saving in cost of material which can be effected by fitting each member in its proper place. Rules, which are written as footnotes to the table, give very important directions. An invariable rule in placing steel is to insert it in the face where the pull will come. Thus in a beam or slab it must be close to the bottom. In a wall, to withstand earth pressure, it must be in the face nearest the earth. If, for example, a beam was designed according to the table, but the steel placed in the middle or top of the beam instead of in the bottom, it would certainly break under a very light load. There must be only enough concrete outside of the steel to protect it from rusting or fire. In floor or roof slabs of small structures this thickness should be one-half inch to three-quarters inch below the bottom of the steel, and for beams from one to one and one- half inches. A typical beam with its connecting floor slabs, the concrete of both of which should be laid at the same operation, is shown in Fig. 9. It will be seen that the beam reinforcement consists of rods running lengthwise of the beam—one-half or one-third of these rods being bent up about one-third way from each end and extending over the supports, as shown in Fig. 9 and for the heavier beams U-shaped bars or stirrups are used which • pass under the longitudinal rods and up on each side of the, beam. The horizontal bars withstand the direct pull in the bottom of the beam due to bending when a load is placed upon it; the U-bars or stirrups and the bent-up bars prevent diagonal cracks, which sometimes occur under loading, and the bars passing over the supports prevent the cracking of the beam on top at the ends. The steel in the slab is placed just above the bottom surface at the center of the span and then bent upward over the supports as shown in the drawing. Proportions for all reinforced concrete must not be leaner than one part Portland cement, two parts clean, coarse sand and four parts broken stone or clean screened gravel. Maximum size of broken stone or gravel should not be over one inch diameter in order to pass between and under the steel rods.
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