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Lowell is the fourth largest city in Massachusetts, located approximately 30 miles away from the state capital, Boston. Lowell includes 14.5 square miles of which 5.23% is water. The city was established on the confluence of the Concord and Merrimack Rivers.
The city consists 8neighbourhoods, which are South Lowell, the Acre, Belvidere, Downtown, Back Central, Centralville, Highlands, and Pawtucketville.
Originally, the area of Lowell was a territory of the Pennacook Indian tribe as an important fishing ground. The first interactions between the Indian tribes and the colonists were about religion and trading. Major Simon Willard liked to trade with the tribes. Colonists gradually moved closer to the native tribes. After founding Chelmsford, subsequent grants of lands extended the town’s territory to cover most of the current area of Lowell, except for 500 acres. People quickly started to buy lands from the Indians, and this hysteria resulted in the outbreak of King Philip’s War in 1675.
Lowell was incorporated in 1826, as a mill town. It granted its name from Francis Cabot Lowell, who was an influential figure of the industrial revolution. The area of Lowell had numerous textile mills and factories, due to which the city became known as the cradle of the American Industrial Revolution. The booming city attracted many immigrants in the hope of a better life. The first wave of immigrants was mainly Irish people and later on German Catholics as well. They were followed by French Canadians after the American Civil War, and at the end of the 19thcentury, other European nationalities followed.
By the 1920s the textile industry began to shift South. The Great Depression hit on Lowell early, then economy never got ack to the previous level. The population dropped, and unemployment was over 12% by 1970.
Nowadays there were numerous attempts to restore the economic importance of the city and to re-focus towards the post-industrial economy.
According to the census of 2010, there were 106,529 residents in Lowell. In 1990 the proportion of ethnicities was 23.5% percent and by 2010 this number has risen to 47.2%. Lowell also experienced an increasing number of people over the age of 50-69, while the number of children decreased. The age composition of the city in 2010 was 23.7% under the age of 18, 13.5% between 18 and 24, 29.4% between 25 and 44, 23.3% between 45 and 64, and 10.0% of 65 years of age or older.
The median household income in Lowell was $51,714 and the median family income was $55,852. Approximately 17.5% of the population was below the poverty line in 2010.
The public school system of the city is operated by the Lowell Public Schools. There are many private schooling options in the area. There are two higher education scenes in the region. One of them is the Middlesex Community College that educates over 17,000 students and the other is the university of Massachusetts Lowell, with 27,000 students.
Are You in Lowell Massachusetts? Do You Need Concrete Cutting?
Imbed an iron staple 1/2 inch in diameter in the top of the post for a clothes line. This can be done by cutting a hole in the head of the form large enough to pass the eye of the staple through, then placing the staple before the concrete is poured and hold it in place by a wad of paper to plug the hole. Another plan is to form a hole near the top of the post by placing a greased dowel in the form before pouring the concrete. Horse blocks can be built solid in place. Make a form or box, without a bottom, 36 inches long, 18 inches wide and 12 inches deep, inside dimensions. Grease this form and fill with concrete, one part Portland Cement, two and one-half parts clean, coarse sand and five parts screened gravel or broken stone. It is best not to plaster the top surface or sides of the block, for if it is plastered it is apt to crack or peel off. The top surface should be smoothed off with a trowel when the concrete is first laid, then in a few hours, as soon as it has begun to stiffen, scrape off any light colored scum with a wire brush or horse curry comb, and trowel the surface again, preferably with a wood float, but using no fresh mortar. The form should be removed the next day, or as soon as the concrete is hard enough not to show thumb marks, and while the concrete is green rub down the sides with a wood float or brick. Keep damp by sprinkling for a week. If the surface thus left is not good enough, it may be necessary to plaster it, even though at the risk of checking and cracking. To do this pick the surface with a stone axe, wet thoroughly and trowel on a coat of mortar one part Portland Cement to one part clean, fine sand, making the layer not over 1-16 inch thick.
The weight of a horse block of the above dimensions is about 675 pounds and about two bags of cement are needed. One of the most useful and essential devices about a farm is the small watering concrete trough, and when made of concrete it is not only of pleasing appearance, but is practically indestructible. Moreover, if an inlet pipe with float valve connection has been provided it needs absolutely no attention. Watering concrete troughs, like many other concrete structures, may be made without steel reinforcement, but if so constructed the walls must be half again as thick as when reinforced, and even then are more apt to crack. The size and capacity of the concrete trough varies with the purpose for which it is used, but for concrete troughs up to about 10 feet long by 2 feet wide by 2 feet deep the thickness of the reinforced walls should be about 5 inches. It is essential that a watering concrete trough be water-tight. The conditions for obtaining a concrete trough which will not leak are a richer mix of concrete than is required for ordinary work; (2) enough water in mixing to give a sloppy concrete, and () the placing of all the concrete at one operation. It is extremely difficult to make any structure water-tight unless all three of the above conditions are complied with. The best mix of concrete to use varies with the sand and gravel employed, but generally speaking one part of granulated Portland Cement to one and one- half parts of clean, coarse sand to three parts of screened gravel or broken stone are advised, or if gravel from the natural bank is used without screening, one part of Portland Cement to three parts of natural bank run gravel. If sand alone is available use one part Portland Cement to two parts sand.
The amount of excavation necessary for the foundation of a concrete trough depends upon the size. For a small concrete trough level off the earth and tamp the ground well before placing any concrete, but for a concrete trough of large capacity a solid foundation should be used. To construct a solid and reliable foundation, excavate about 12 inches and fill in 6 inches with either cinders or gravel from which the sand has been screened, tamp this well and fill in 6 inches of concrete, using only half the proportion of cement to sand and stone that is used for the concrete trough itself. Next place the outer forms in position, brace and oil them well and mix the concrete according to the directions given.
Lowell Massachusetts Concrete Cutting and Core Drilling