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Bolton is a residential and agricultural community in Worcester County, approximately 25 miles of Boston downtown. It lies along Route 495, and 117 on the east slope of Nashua River Valley.It has a total area of 20 square miles of which 0.35% is water, and has rich forests and lime deposits as well.
Bolton was incorporated on the 24th of June, 1738, as by this year a relatively big amount of settlers had wandered to the area. There was a big massacre in Lancaster in 1675-76 after which the eastern side of the river became to be settled by displaced settlers and English immigrants. According to Esther Withcomb, there were about 150 settlers living in this area by 1711 despite the common Indian uprisings on the territory of Bolton. The settlers however, started farming and developed a prosperous lifestyle which resulted in a steady and slow increase of the population. The first record of the population was taken in 1850, when altogether 1,263 people lived in Bolton. By the 1800’s orchards and dairy farming were added to the economy of the town. Most of the rural heritage of Bolton is preserved today as a residential suburb for the surrounding more industrialized towns and cities.
As most of the settlements in Massachusetts, Bolton is also governed by the system of the Open Town Meeting. Any of the citizens can join but only registered voters can vote. The executive branch is represented by the Board of Selectmen, who are: Stanley Wysocki, Mark Sprangue and Larry Delaney. The Town Administrator is Donald Lowe.
During the census of 2010, there were altogether 4,148 people residing in Bolton. They counted 1,424 households and 1,201 families living within the boundaries of town. The population density was 208.1 people per square mile and the housing units’ average density reached 74.1per square mile. The population spread out with 30.4% under 18, 3.3% between the ages of 18 and 24, 31.2% between 25 and 44, 28.8% between 45 and 64, and finally 6.2% over the age of 65. This composition made up a median age of 38.
The median income was $102, 798 per household and $108,967 per families. The per capita income was $42,542. Only 1.8% of the population fell below the poverty line of which 1.5% was under the age of 18 and 3.5% over 65.
The Nashoba Regional School District welcomes approximately 1067 children from Bolton, Lancaster and Stow. It provides PreK-12 education for its students. It also has quality sporting courses that children can attend, such as soccer, field hockey, golf, cross country, other ballgames, skiing, and many more.
People tend to commute from Bolton to the more industrialized nearby towns such as Worchester, Littleton, Lowell or Berlin. Heavy traffic on the highways makes it very difficult sometimes. MBTA, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority runs commuter rail lines from the closest larger cities to Boston, but not to Bolton.
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Concrete is a compound of gravel, broken rock or other aggregate, bound together by means of hydraulic cement, coal tar, asphaltic, or other cementing materials. Generally when a qualifying term is not used Portland cement concrete is understood." In order to secure satisfactory concrete it is usually necessary to separate the aggregates into two portions by size; hence the Joint Committee definition: "a mixture of Portland cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water." The 1924 report deals only with Portland cement concrete. Plain concrete, being brittle and weak in tension, is suitable only for relatively massive members subject to compression Combination structural members made of concrete reinforced by steel bars, placed so as to carry the tensile stresses, are sturdy and reliable. The name reinforced concrete cannot be applied to a combination piece of steel and concrete unless both materials assist in carrying the load and the whole acts as a unit. Of the three fundamental types of structural members, beams, columns, and ties, only beams and columns can ever be said to be of reinforced concrete. The advantages of reinforced concrete as a structural material are evident, each element making up for the deficiencies of the other, the steel supplying the tensile strength and toughness and the concrete supplying the compressive strength besides protecting the steel from corrosion and from fire. Portland Cement. The usual description of Portland cement is the product obtained by finely pulverizing clinker produced by calcimine to incipient fusion an intimate and properly proportioned mixture of argillaceous and calcareous materials with no additions subsequent to calcinations except water and calcite or unclaimed gypsum. It differs from natural cement (" the finely pulverized product resulting from the calcinations of an argillaceous limestone at a temperature sufficient only to drive off the carbonic acid gas ") in being slower setting, much stronger, more uniform and reliable. Portland cement is to a very considerable degree a standardized article of commerce and practically all brands can be depended upon to satisfy the standard tests. It is customary, however, on all work of importance to submit the cement to test. Alumina Cements. The new high-alumina cements are made by reducing to a powder a fused mixture of bauxite (aluminum ore) and limestone. Concrete made with these cements sets, that is, changes from a plastic to a stiff state, in about the same time as Portland cement concrete and then proceeds to harden and gain in strength very rapidly, attaining in 24 hours a compressive strength equal to or greater than that gained by Portland cement concrete in 28 days. This 24-hour strength is, approximately, 75 percent of that reached at 28 days. This rapid gain in strength is accompanied by a considerable development of heat, sufficient to protect the mass from freezing until high strength is attained under weather conditions which would entirely prevent Portland cement from setting or hardening. Another important advantage, that which led to the development of this cement in France, is that concrete made with alumina cement apparently resists the action of sea water and alkalis which often disintegrate Portland cement concrete. It is probable that the limited supplies of raw material suitable for making high alumina cements will always keep their cost in North America far above that of Portland cement. Consequently, they will be used only for a limited class of work where their high strength and quick hardening justify the increased expenditure. At present there is no reason to believe they will ever replace Portland cement for ordinary construction.
Bolton Massachusetts Concrete Cutting and Core Drilling