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Brookline is part of the Norfolk County and the Greater Boston region. It shares its borders with six of Boston's neighborhoods and Newton city.
The town of Brookline, MA was first settled by European colonists in 1638 and was known then as the hamlet of Muddy River. The name possibly derives from a farm owned by the infamous Samuel Semwall, who was one of the nine appointed judges during the Salem Witch Trials hysteria.
The hamlet was officially incorporated as Brookline in 1705. Despite many attempts by the city of Boston to annex the city, Brookline residents have always resisted and the town kept its independence, having no interests in joining “Beantown”.
Independent and progressive, as Benjamin F. Butler's idea of extending the right to vote to women, advocated during his campaign for Governor, was well received by Brookline residents. The city is twinned with QuezIalguaque, Nicaragua, since 1987.
Today, with a high density population nearing 60,000 souls with origins from over 50 countries, Brookline has become a cosmopolitan city teeming with culture and with a rich history to share. Because it serves as a residential zone for nearby academic and medical research, Brookline is the "brain city" of the United States, with an astonishing 14% of the total population being doctoral degree holders. There are several institutes of higher education located here, including parts of Boston University and Boston College, as well as private primary and secondary schools.
Brookline is also a choice destination for history buffs and fans of the Kennedy family. The birthplace of John F. Kennedy, maintained by the National Park Service, is open to public. St Aidan's Church,where he and his siblings were baptized has now been converted into housing. Designed by award-winning architect Charles Maginnis, this Medieval Tudor Revival style Catholic Church can still be seen at 207 Freeman Street.
Another favorite Brookline Landmark is the Larz Anderson Park, which contains the Larz Anderson Auto Museum. Automobile enthusiasts are sure to be delighted with the United States’ oldest privately owned automobile collection.
Craftmanship and arts are well represented in Brookline, with a wide variety of museums and markets. From Irving's Toy and Cards shop to the Farmers Market, from the Museum of Bad Art to the Puppet Showplace Theater, these are among the landmarks that reflect the rich diversity and creativity of the city of Brookline. National historic sites include “Fairsted”, the century-old headquarters of the Olmsted Brothers firm, the Dutch House, relocated to Brookline after the 1893.
World's Columbian Exposition, the John Goddard House, built in 1767, the S.S. Pierce Building and the Coolidge Corner Theatre.
Interesting Brookline Facts:
His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej, Rama IX and his brother His Majesty King Ananda Mahipol, Rama VII of Thailand spent the first years of their royal lives in Brookline, while their father was studying at Harvard Medical School.
Three Nobel Prize winners were born in Brookline: Sheldon Lee Glashow (1979, Physics), George Minot (1934, Physiology and Medicine) and Norman Ramsey (1989, Physics).
Are You in Brookline Massachusetts? Do You Need Concrete Cutting?
They give the Nominal Mix and correction must be made to obtain the Field Mix. In important work it is not enough to take the mix from these tables. The aggregates should be tested and the proper proportions determined by means of the designing data given in this article, the results being checked by compression tests on cylinders. The necessity of waiting 28 days for results is often a serious difficulty. Seven-day tests are coming into use as a guide to the 28-day strength. It is possible that comparative tests between Portland cement concrete and that made with the new alumina cements will eventually be made, enabling 24-hour tests on aggregates with the quick-hardening cements to be used as a guide for designing Portland cement concrete mixes. Parallel with more scientific methods of proportioning concrete there are being developed more exact methods for the field, notably more exact devices for measuring the materials. The uncertainty due to the bulking of loose moist sand is now often met by measuring the sand and water together by the so-called inundation method, taking advantage of the fact that when there is an excess of water over that required to fill the voids the sand volume is closely the same as when measured dry and loose. This is shown by Plate I where the bulking effects of varying percentages of water are recorded. The procedure in designing a mix is illustrated by the following example: It is desired to proportion the concrete for a reinforced concrete building. The city code places the 28-day compressive strength at 100 percent. "Effect of Moisture in Sands," R. R. Litehiser in "Concrete," January 1925. "Standard Method- of Test for Unit Weight of Aggregate for Concrete" (Serial Designation C29-21) A.S.T.M. Reprinted as Appendix XV of the 1924 Joint Committee Report. The Nominal Mix is found to be 1-1.56-3.63 and accordingly the sand is 30 per cent of the mix. The Real Mix is 1-4.5. The fineness modulus of the combined aggregates is 5.72. The 1916 Joint Committee and many building codes place the average 28-day strength for ordinary 1-6 or 1-2-4 concrete at 2000 pounds per square inch, the measurements being made by loose volume. It seems certain the Joint Committee proportions refer to dry material although it is not so stated.
By compacting the aggregates by rodding would reduce the proportions to about 1-1.9-3.8 or 1-5.7Nominal Mix. The 1924 Joint Committee specifies a somewhat richer mix if this strength of 2000 pounds per square inch is desired. The table from that report (Appendix A) gives the average proportions of 1-1.7-3.4 or 1-5.1, for ordinary 2000 pounds per square inch concrete, 6-7 inch slump, made with the usual size materials for reinforced concrete construction. To make this comparison on the basis of Field Mix account must be taken of the bulking effect of moisture on the fine aggregate as well as upon the difference between loose and rodded measurements. The moisture content of sand on the job is often 5 percent, so for the coarse sand must be taken to obtain as much sand as there is in 1 cubic foot dry and rodded; for the coarse aggregate of Ex. 2, 105 -~ 98 = 1.07 cubic feet. Assuming this amount of bulking to be possible in the field the 1916 Joint Committee nominal mix of 1-1.9-3.8 is equivalent to a field mix of 1-1.9 X 1.4-3.8 X 1.1 = 1-2.7-4.2 or 1-6.9. In the same way the 1924 Joint Committee nominal mix corresponds to a field mix of 1-11 X 1.4-3.4 X 1.1 = 1-2.4-3.7 = 1-6.1. For smaller sized aggregates the 1924 Joint Committee calls for a still richer mix. The actual amount of bulking of wet sand depends on the manner of handling. The data in Plate I were obtained by pouring sand slowly into the several containers and the bulking is very much more than occurs when sand is shoveled from a pile into barrows. So the figures given above are useful only to emphasize by exaggeration the fact that applying the tabular proportions to field measurements is on the safe side. It is not possible to say whether or not the generalization of the Water-Cement Ratio will stand finally as the unquestioned law of concrete strength but there is no doubt but that it marks a very long step ahead in our knowledge. In fact it is not an exaggeration to say that it is working a revolutionary change in concrete making with a great betterment of product. The theory of aggregate analysis with the Fineness Modulus as the standard is not at all a matter of the same order. While it has proved an extremely valuable method of analysis its use is not essential to the application of Professor Abrams' major theory. Unquestionably there remains much to be learned concerning the action of aggregates. To many the weak point in the new theory is the proviso that it holds only with workable mixes. Workability is a somewhat indefinite standard but one that implies to the practical man a rather narrow range of possible variation. There is argument as to whether the slump test really measures workability which is a function of both the wetness and the grading of the mix. The fact that quite generally it is necessary to add more sand than called for by the theory is a real difficulty. The leading investigators in this field agree in their recognition of the fundamental importance of the proportion of water used in concrete but in other points there are differences of opinion. Probably the best place to turn to for information concerning progress is to the series of the Proceedings of the American Concrete Institute. Other rather random references are given in the list that follows. Concrete differs from other structural materials which come to the job as finished products in that it is manufactured where it is used. Good quality of concrete is the first essential for the permanence and solidity of the structure in which it is placed and accordingly its manufacture is a heavy responsibility upon the engineer. Structural steel is a standardized article of commerce, made under rigid supervision, and it can be bought in the open market with confidence that it will pass the rigid requirements of the American Society for Testing Materials. However on all important work involving large tonnage the engineer provides for careful inspection and tests of the steel. How much more essential is it that the engineer select with care the manufacturer of his concrete, the contractor, and hold him rigidly to the best methods of modern workmanship to ensure that the structural concrete be of the requisite strength and quality.
The preceding chapter outlined the best methods of proportioning concrete; the present chapter is concerned with the best methods of the actual manufacturing process itself. It consists largely of quotations from the 1924 Joint Committee report which give an excellent summary of the best practice. It should be realized that in some particulars these requirements are rather stricter than can be easily enforced on small jobs. The mixing of concrete, unless otherwise authorized by the Engineer, shall be done in a batch mixer of approved type which will insure a uniform distribution of the materials throughout the mass so that the mixture is uniform in color and homogeneous. The mixer shall be equipped with suitable charging hopper, water storage, and water-measuring device controlled from a case which can be kept locked and so constructed that the water can be discharged only while the mixer is being charged. It shall also be equipped with an attachment for automatically locking the discharge lever until the batch has been mixed the required time after all materials are in the mixer. The entire contents of the drum shall be discharged before recharging. The mixer shall be cleaned at frequent intervals while in use. The volume of the mixed material per batch shall not exceed the manufacturer's rated capacity of the mixer."
Brookline Massachusetts Concrete Cutting and Core Drilling