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Lynn is a city located in Essex County, Massachusetts, approximately 10 miles away from Boston in the North, on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. Lynn is part of the inner metropolitan area of Boston. Lynn used to be an industrial center of the area, which also brought its negative features; Lynn was called the ‘City of Sin’ due to its reputation of crime and vice. By today it is known as a city with an international population, historical architecture, cultural district, reservation lands, and beaches.
Before the European settlers came to the area, it was inhabited by the Agawam Native American Tribe. Europeans started to settle around 1629, led by Edmund Ingalls. The city was first incorporated as Saugus, which was the original Nipmuck name of the area. The name Lynn was given to the settlement after King Lynn, to honor Samuel Whiting. It was officially incorporated as a city in 1850.
In the 19thcentury, Lynn Shoe manufacturers invested in the electric industry, in the Thomson-Houston Electric Company. The company later merged with the EdisonElectric company, forming General Electric.
The population of Lynn increased from 9,800 to 29,500 between 1885 and 1915. These people were immigrants from Europe, mainly from Russia and Poland.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Lynn was a leader in the shoe industry in the world. 234 factories produced more than a million shoes daily. The production started to decline and the last factory closed in 1981.
In the 21st century, renovations and the adaptive re-use of the downtown historic structuresstarted to take place. This happened together with many constructions so the revitalization of Lynn has started and it is ongoing nowadays as well.
At the census of 2010, there were 90,329 residents in Lynn. This number included 33,310 households and 20,988 families. The age composition of the town was 24.9% under the age of 18, and 75.1% over the age of 18.
The median household income was $44,849, and the per capita income was 22,982 between 2009 and 2013. Approximately 21% of the population was below the poverty line.
As far as the racial makeup is concerned, the population consisted of 57.6% Whites, 12.8% African-Americans, 0.7% Native Americans, 7% Asians, 0.1% pacific Islanders, and 16.8% from other races.
Schools are operated by the Lynn Public School District. The city of Lynn has 18 Elementary schools, two alternative schools, four junior high schools and three public high schools. There is also an independent Catholic High School, the St. Mary’s High School.
The closest interstates to the city are the Route 1, I95, and Route 128 in Lynnfield. Otherwise, Route 1A, 107, 129 and 129A pass through the city. Commuters can travel to Boston by the MBTA Commuter Railway along the Newburyport/Rockport line. Otherwise, there are numerous MBTA bus routes as well that connect Lynn with Boston and with the surrounding settlements. The nearest international airport is the Logan International Airport in Boston.
Are You in Lynn Massachusetts? Do You Need Concrete Cutting?
Oil the forms well before placing the concrete. The materials required for a circular concrete trough like this are 3'/2 bags of granulated Portland cement and 1 single load of sand and gravel. Two men can make a concrete trough in about one-half day each, and the cost is approximately $4.00 complete. A single load of sand or gravel is considered as 20 cubic feet, or 3/4 of a cubic yard, and a double load as 40 cubic feet, or nearly x cubic yards. A method of constructing a circular concrete trough where a cut off section of an old boiler was used, not only for the exterior form, but also as the outside finish, is shown. This style of concrete trough, although rather attractive, is more expensive than the one just described on account of the cut off boiler section, which in this case was about $10.00. A desirable hog concrete trough can be made by building a bottomless box 6 feet long and 12 inches broad by 12 inches deep. Place these 5 feet 6 inches apart and nail a plank i inch thick on each side of the triangle. Place the inverted V-shaped concrete trough thus made inside. A single load of sand or gravel is considered as 20 cubic feet, or 3/4 of a cubic yard, and a double load as 40 cubic feet, or nearly x cubic yards. A method of constructing a circular concrete trough where a cut off section of an old boiler was used, not only for the exterior form, but also as the outside finish, is shown on page 49. This style of concrete trough, although rather attractive, is more expensive than the one just described on account of the cut off boiler section, which in this case was about $10.00.
A desirable hog concrete trough can be made by building a bottomless box 6 feet long and 12 inches broad by 12 inches deep. Place these 5 feet 6 inches apart and nail a plank i inch thick on each side of the triangle. Place the inverted V-shaped concrete trough thus made inside the bottomless box and put small triangular strips around the edges to make a square edge. Grease the form thoroughly and fill the space left with concrete mixture, one part Portland Cement and three parts clean sand or sandy gravel, tamp lightly, and smooth off to top of box. Let stand until dry. Remove the inner forms within 3 or 4 hours, and paint the inside with pure Portland cement, mixed as thick as cream. Should a concrete trough with a round bottom be desired, an inner form can be made by sawing a log the right length, stripping it of bark, and splitting in half. Put this in the bottomless box described above, flat side down, grease well and proceeds as with triangular concrete trough. Every farm should have one or more slop tanks, in order to heat the slop and prevent it from freezing, so that the cattle can be fed no matter how cold it may be. Slop tanks of concrete have proved satisfactory. A concrete slop tank should be made of one part Portland cement to two and one-half parts clean, coarse sand to five parts of screened gravel or stone. The size shown in Fig. 14 will require 12 bags of cement, 1/2 single loads of sand (20 cubic feet per singe load) and 3 single loads of screened gravel, or better still, clean cinders. A 36-inch iron kettle, having a capacity of 75 gallons, costs about $7.00 in the city market, to which the freight must be added. The forms are very simple, and can be easily made by a man in a day. The inner form need not be removed, but can be burnt out the first time a fire is built in it. The tank must be well reinforced in order to keep it from cracking, due to the difference in temperature to which the tank is subject. The firing is done from the door left in the front and the stack takes care of the draft. Do not build a fire in the tank until the concrete has set for at least two weeks. Fertilizing tanks should be made about the shape of and a little larger than a barrel. If carefully made they will withstand the rough usage to which they are subjected by being pulled from place to place on drags, and are unaffected by the fertilizing fluids.
Lynn Massachusetts Concrete Cutting and Core Drilling