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Essex is a town in Massachusetts, located about 26 miles away fromBoston in the north, close to the coast. The central parts of Essex and Essex South make up the census-designated area of Essex. As most if the towns in Massachusetts, Essex uses the Annual Town Meeting system with a Board of Selectmen as a form government.
Before the European settlers arrived in 1634, the Agawam Native American Tribe had lived in the area. Essex remained part of Ipswich until the beginning of the 19th century, and was called Chebacco Parish. Early on, the town tried to gain independence and get incorporated as a separate town, so they asked permission from Ipswitch to build a meeting house. Since this would have meant de facto autonomy, Ipswich denied the permission, saying: “no man shall raise a meeting house”. The sneaky inhabitants of Essex interpreted this as only women are allowed to build a meeting house, so under the leadership of Madam Varney, the women of the town gathered and built the meeting house up. Of course, men supervise the construction.
As of the census of 2000, 3,267 residents were living in Essex. This number included 1,313 households and 887 families. The population density was 230.7 persons per square mile at the time of the census.
The population of Essex spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 5.3% between 18 and 24 years, 30.1% between 25 and 44 years, 26.8 %between 45 and 64 years, and 13.6% of 65 years old or older. The median age of Essex was 40 years in 2000.
The median household income was $59,554, and the median family income was $70,152. The per capita income was $31,613. 6.6% of the population of Essex was below the poverty line.
According to the US Census Bureau, Essex has a land of 15.9 square miles of which 12.41% is water. The town does not have direct access to the ocean. The Essex River flows through the town, creating a little marshland in the centre of Essex. The two largest rivers in the area are Essex River and Castle Neck River which flow into the Ipswitch Bay, alongside with many small creeks and streams. The area of Essex is rich in protected lands such as the Allyn-Cox Reservation, the state Wildlife Management Area, or a part of the Crane Wildlife Refuge.
Route 128, 133, and 22 are leading through the town. The Ipswitch-Essex Explorer bus connects the town with the MBTA Commuter Railway in Ipswich, which runsalong the Newburyport/Rockport line.
Essex has its elementary school, but higher education was merged, and children can attend to Manchester Essex Regional Middle and High School, located in Manchester-by-the-Sea.
Earlier in history, the main industry of town was shipbuilding. As they did not keep up with the improvements of technology, this industry had faded by the 1940’s. Today, the main industry of Essex is the shellfish industry and tourism, which are closely related. The exceptional quality of clam that lives in the tidal river draws a lot of tourists to the local restaurants. Essex doesn’t have a beach but tourists can hang out and go hiking in the surrounding areas of town.
It is usually specified that the weight of reinforced concrete shall be assumed at 150 pounds per cubic foot. Several important building codes allow the more convenient figure of 144 pounds per cubic foot which is perhaps somewhat lighter than the average reinforced concrete. Since concrete is manufactured in a plastic or semi-fluid state, it must of necessity be confined in a mould or form until it has set or hardened sufficiently to hold its shape and in many cases support its own weight. Under certain circumstances forms may be omitted. Such cases are the bottoms of foundations and ground floors and sometimes the sides of footings or walls. This ordinarily means that an earth surface acts as a form. Forms represent 10 to 25 per cent of the final cost of a concrete structure. This cost may vary considerably with design, and therefore forms must be considered by the designer although their detailed layout is commonly left to the contractor or field engineer. The first essential of forms is that they must be carefully built to the required dimensions and made of sufficient strength to hold their shape and alignment under the load of the wet concrete and any construction loads which may come upon them. They must also be sufficiently tight to prevent the escape of water, for escaping water carries with it much of the finest and most effective cement. A second essential is that they be designed to facilitate as far as possible easy removal.
The requirements of the finished concrete surface must often be considered. Forms for footings or other substructure work may be of the roughest construction. Forms for ordinary building work must be of dressed stock to give a satisfactory appearance. For ornamental work, cornices, etc., the forms must be built with great care and the outlines should be designed with a view to reasonable construction. Offsets in moldings should be 1 inch, 1 inch or some other stock lumber size, no offsets less than inch being practical in ordinary commercial construction. It should be remembered that sharp corners are always liable to spalling when forms are stripped. This is one of the reasons why triangular fillets are usually used at all corners of beams and columns. Construction joints are seldom completely obliterated, so they should be made where they will show the least, or located with a view to symmetry. Wood is still the most common form material, spruce and pine being most used. Certain woods, notably hemlock, are unsuitable for nice work because they stain the concrete. Partially seasoned stock is usually used, for fully dried lumber swells too much when wet. For all except substructure work lumber should always be planned on at least one face and one edge, and usually it is dressed on all four sides. Steel forms for concrete have a considerable and perhaps growing use. They are more expensive in first cost than wood, but more substantial for re-handling, so that if steel forms can be used enough times, they are cheaper than wood. Steel gives a smoother concrete surface than wood, without board marks, but the joints of the panels show in the finished work. Steel is used generally for concrete chimney forms, for circular columns and fiat slab column capitals. It is also used for slab-forms both in the shape of domes and pans for ribbed floors and in panels, sometimes reinforced with wood ribs, for plain slabs and walls. Plaster and glue forms are used for ornamental work, usually the province of the architect rather than the engineer. Outlines so elaborate as to require such special forms should be designed in consultation with someone experienced in special form work. Concrete forms are usually built by rule of thumb, although experience has shown that careful designing saves money on a good sized job. In computing the size of form members required for strength, account must be taken of the fact that concrete will exert a hydrostatic head of about 125 pounds a cubic foot until set.
Cutting and/or enlarging door, window and bulkhead openings in concrete foundations.
Cutting 1" to 24" diameter perfectly round core holes for electrical, plumbing or vents in concrete floors and foundations.
Cutting and dicing concrete floors, concrete walkways, concrete patios or concrete pool decks for easy removal and/or neat patching.
Cutting trenches in concrete floors for plumbing, electrical, sump pumps, French drains or other utilities.
We cut and remove concrete, stone or masonry walls, floors, walkways, patios and stairs.