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Townsend is a small country in Middlesex country, Massachusetts of United states. The population was around 8,926 during 2010 census. The town was first settled in the year 1676 and it was officially incorporated in the year 1732. The town was titled after an English secretary of the state named Townsend.
The total area of Townsend is about 33.1 sq.miles, out of which 32.9 sq.miles is composed of land and remaining is water. The town has largest area of land in Middlesex country. The Town is covered by Ashby to west, Pepperell to east, Shirley and Groton to southeast, New Hampshire, Brookline, mason and New Hampshire to north.
The town was incorporated in the year 1732. The first and foremost meeting house was constructed in 1730 over the meeting house hill. With the increase in the population of the town, the meeting house became too small for its members. So, a larger building was developed just behind the fist building. But the residents were not satisfied with the new meeting house, instead they wanted it to be more centrally situated and so the meeting house was shifted to the center of the town and this it became Methodist church. This church was renovated recently.
The first mill of Townsend was constructed during 1733 within “Townsend harbor”. The pond at the harbor came into inception in the year 1734 and dam was built for this particular mill.
Concrete weighs about 130 pounds per cubic foot. Rubble concrete is a concrete in which large stones are placed, and will be discussed in Part II. The cost of concrete depends upon the character of the work to be done, and the conditions under which it is necessary to do this work. The cost of the material, of course, will always have to be considered, but this is not as important as the character of the work. The cost of concrete in place will range from $4.50 per cubic yard to $20, or even $25, per cubic yard. When it is laid in large masses, so that the cost of concrete forms is relatively small, the cost will range from $4.50 per cubic yard to $6 or $7 per cubic yard, depending on the local conditions and cost of materials. Foundations and heavy walls are good examples of this class of work. For sewers and arches, the cost will vary from $7 to $13. In building construction—floors, roofs, and thin walls—the cost will range from $14 to $20 per cubic yard.
The cost of Portland cement varies with the demand. Being heavy, the freight is often a big item. The price varies from $1 to $2 per barrel. To this must be added the cost of handling. The cost of sand, including handling and freight, ranges from $0.75 to $1.50 per cubic yard. A common price for sand delivered in the cities is $1.00 per cubic yard. The cost of broken stone delivered in the cities varies from $1.25 to $1.75 per cubic yard. The cost of gravel is usually a little less than stone.
Under ordinary conditions and where the concrete will have to be wheeled only a very short distance, the cost of hand-mixing and placing will generally range from $0.90 to $1.30 per cubic yard, if done by men skilled in this work. If a mixer is used, the cost will range from $0.50 to $0.90 per cubic yard. The cost of forms for heavy wall, and foundations, varies from $0.70 to $1.20 per cubic yard of concrete laid. The cost of forms and mixing concrete will be further din- cussed in Part IV. A rich concrete mixture, proportions 1:2:4—that is, 1 barrel (4 bags) packed Portland cement (as it comes from the manufacturer), 2 barrels (7.6 cubic feet) loose sand, and 4 barrels (15.2 cubic feet) loose stone—is used in arches, reinforced-concrete floors, beams, and columns for heavy loads; engine and machine foundations subject to vibration; tanks; and for water-tight work.
A medium concrete mixture, proportions 1: 2- :5—that is, 1 barrel (4 .bags) packed Portland cement, 2- barrels (9.5 cubic feet) loose sand, and 5 barrels (19 cubic feet) loose gravel or stone—may be used in arches, thin walls, floors, beams, sewers, sidewalks, foundations, and machine foundations. An ordinary concrete mixture, proportions 1 : 3 : 6—that is, 1 barrel (4 hag) packed Portland cement, 3 barrels (11.4 cubic feet) loose sand, and 6 barrels (22.8 cubic feet) loose gravel or broken stone— may be used for retaining walls, abutments, piers, floor slabs, and beams. A lean concrete mixture, proportions 1: 4 : 8—that is, 1 barrel (4 bags) packed Portland cement, 4 barrels (15.2 cubic feet) loose sand, and 8 barrels (30.4 cubic feet) loose gravel or broken stone—may be used in large foundations supporting stationary loads, backing for stone masonry, or where it is subject of a plain compressive load. These proportions must not be taken as always being the most economical to use, but they represent average practice.
Cement is the most expensive ingredient; therefore a reduction of the quantity of cement, by adjusting the proportions of the aggregate so as to produce a concrete with the same density, strength, and impermeability, is of great importance. By careful proportioning and workmanship, water-tight concrete has been made of a 1:3: 6 concrete mixtures. In floor construction where the span is very short and it is specified that the slab must be at least 4 inches thick, while with a high-grade concrete a 3-inch slab would carry the load, it is certainly more economical to use a leaner concrete.
Cutting and/or enlarging door, window and bulkhead openings in concrete foundations.
Cutting 1" to 24" diameter perfectly round core holes for electrical, plumbing or vents in concrete floors and foundations.
Cutting and dicing concrete floors, concrete walkways, concrete patios or concrete pool decks for easy removal and/or neat patching.
Cutting trenches in concrete floors for plumbing, electrical, sump pumps, French drains or other utilities.
We cut and remove concrete, stone or masonry walls, floors, walkways, patios and stairs.